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rmforall
09-25-2004, 12:00 AM
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1114
review of sweeteners 2004, Weihrauch MR, Diehl V: formaldehyde from 11%
methanol component of aspartame, methanol in dark wines and liquors,
fermentation of fruits in colon, also smoke, new buildings, furniture,
drapes, carpets, personal products: available database from Harvard Nurses'
Health Study II of 91,249 women in 1991-1999: Murray 2004.09.18 rmforall

Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@comcast.net
1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 USA 505-501-2298

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/messages
131 members, 1,115 posts in a public searchable archive

2004.09.17 This review by an unqualified, earnest medical layman, aims at
providing simple information from recent mainstream research on the toxicity
of formaldehyde. Here are a few summary remarks, backed up by the body of
this post.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1094
the 11% methanol component of aspartame becomes formaldehyde, now ruled a
carcinogen by WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer: Murray
2004.06.16 rmforall

Methanol toxicity results from the inevitable conversion within hours of
much of it into formaldehyde and then formic acid, both potent, cumulative
toxins that affect every tissue, and that in long-term chronic exposure are
a major cause of hypersensitivity to formaldehyde and other chemicals.

About the same amount of methanol exists as an impurity, about one part in
ten thousand, in dark wines and liquors, stated by experts to be the major
cause of the infamous "morning after" hangover: "thirst, headache, fatigue,
nausea, sweating, tremor, remorse, and anxiety that hangover sufferers
report...." Also, dizziness is common, along with vision and eye problems,
irritability, impaired memory, "brain fog", aching joints and body pains,
flushed skin.

Jones AW (1987) found next-morning hangover from red wine with
100 to 150 mg methanol
(9.5% w/v ethanol; 100 mg/l methanol = 0.01%, one part in ten thousand).

Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol -- 1,120 mg aspartame in 2 L diet soda,
almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol) -- the same
amount that produces hangover from red wine.

"Between a quarter and a half of drinkers claim not to experience hangover
symptoms despite having been intoxicated. (three citations)" This
indicates a remarkable range of individual vulnerability to formaldehyde and
formic acid exposure.

Other strong formaldehyde sources are tobacco and wood smoke, and the
particleboard and new furniture, carpet, and drapes especially concentrated
in mobile homes. Many personal care products contain formaldehyde; for
instance, leather shoes can cause foot dermatitis.

Similar levels of methanol, and its inevitable products in the human body,
formaldehyde and formic acid, can also ensue from fermentation of fruit
pectins in the colon.

The wide range of individual variability and the multitude of long-term,
low-level sources renders statistical studies difficult. It is commonsense
to consider seriously the multitudes of case reports of long-term heavy
users who become aspartame reactors, and to focus research on the actual
complex toxic biochemistry for long-term heavy exposure in vulnerable
people.

An available huge database exists in the Harvard Nurses' Health Study II.
The diabetes analysis included 91,249 women free of diabetes and other major
chronic diseases at baseline in 1991.
The weight change analysis included 51,603 women for whom complete dietary
information and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999.

There were three questions on diet soft drinks
("low-calorie cola with caffeine,"
"low-calorie caffeine-free cola,"
and "other low-calorie beverages").

We summed the intake of single items to create a total of sugar-sweetened
soft drink, diet soft drink, and fruit juice consumption.

The 9 possible responses, ranging from "never" to "6 or more times per day,"
were aggregated into 4 categories
(<1 drink per month, 1-4 drinks per month, 2-6 drinks per week, and 1 drink
per day).

Similar questionnaires were used to collect dietary information in 1995 and
1999.

The data for "6 or more times per day", rather than being averaged out with
lower levels of use, should be studied for correlations with heavy alcohol
use, high use of fruit, tobacco and wood smoke, mobile homes, other
formaldehyde sources, MSG, carbon monoxide, VOCs, pesticides, heavy metals,
and the many typical symptoms for hangovers and aspartame reactors:
headaches, mental illnesses, seizures, dementia, accidents, crimes, suicide,
infertility, miscarriages, birth defects, autism, asthma, sudden infant
death syndrome, diabetes, cerebral palsy, allergies, Multiple Chemical
Sensitivity, Multiple Sclerosis, Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,
Attention Deficit Disorder, arthritis, dermatitis, thyroid diseases, liver
diseases, obesity, heart diseases, stroke, cancers, vision problems,
addictions, as well as any protective effects of folic acid, which
facilitates the elimination of formaldehyde.

This database might well be fully available and immediately searchable to
test these associations.

The automated Comet assay, fast, sensitive, and inexpensive, is a standard
for assessment of DNA damage in any stored blood and tissue samples:

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/935
Comet assay finds DNA damage from sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin in
mice: Sasaki YF & Tsuda S Aug 2002: Murray 2003.01.01 rmforall
[ Also borderline evidence, in this pilot study of 39 food additives,
using test groups of 4 mice, for DNA damage from for stomach, colon,
liver, bladder, and lung 3 hr after oral dose of 2000 mg/kg aspartame--
a very high dose. Methanol is the only component of aspartame that can lead
to DNA damage. ]
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rmforall
09-25-2004, 12:02 AM
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http://annonc.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/15/10/1460
Annals of Oncology 2004; 15(10): 1460-1465; doi:10.1093/annonc/mdh256
Articles by Weihrauch, M. R.
Articles by Diehl, V.
© 2004 European Society for Medical Oncology

Review

Artificial sweeteners-do they bear a carcinogenic risk?
M. R. Weihrauch* and V. Diehl v.diehl@uni-koeln.de
Department of Internal Medicine I of the University of Cologne, Cologne,
Germany
* Correspondence to: Dr M. R. Weihrauch, Immunologisches Labor Haus 16,
Uniklinik Koeln, Joseph-Stelzmann-Strasse 9, 50924 Koeln, Germany. Tel:
+49-221-4784488 Fax: +49-221-4785912 martin.weihrauch@uni-koeln.de

Artificial sweeteners are added to a wide variety of food, drinks, drugs and
hygiene products.
Since their introduction, the mass media have reported about potential
cancer risks, which has contributed to undermine the public's sense of
security.
It can be assumed that every citizen of Western countries uses artificial
sweeteners, knowingly or not.
A cancer-inducing activity of one of these substances would mean a health
risk to an entire population.
We performed several PubMed searches of the National Library of Medicine for
articles in English about artificial sweeteners.
These articles included 'first generation' sweeteners such as saccharin,
cyclamate and aspartame, as well as 'new generation' sweeteners such as
acesulfame-K, sucralose, alitame and neotame.
Epidemiological studies in humans did not find the bladder cancer-inducing
effects of saccharin and cyclamate that had been reported from animal
studies in rats. Despite some rather unscientific assumptions, there is no
evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic.
Case-control studies showed an elevated relative risk of 1.3 for heavy
artificial sweetener use (no specific substances specified) of >1.7 g/day.
For new generation sweeteners, it is too early to establish any
epidemiological evidence about possible carcinogenic risks.
As many artificial sweeteners are combined in today's products, the
carcinogenic risk of a single substance is difficult to assess.
However, according to the current literature, the possible risk of
artificial sweeteners to induce cancer seems to be negligible. PMID:
15367404
Key words: aspartame, cancer, cyclamate, saccharin, sweeteners
************************************************** ************

Med Klin (Munich). 2001 Nov 15;96(11):670-5.
Erratum in:
Med Klin 2002 Mar 15;97(3):173.
[Artificial sweeteners--are they potentially carcinogenic?] [Article in
German]
Weihrauch MR, Diehl V, Bohlen H. martin.weihrauch@uni-koeln.de

Klinik I fur Innere Medizin, Universitat zu Koln.

BACKGROUND: Artificial sweeteners have rapidly evolved over the last 20
years and are added to a broad variety of food, drinks, drugs, and hygiene
products.
Since their introduction, especially mass media have reported about
potential cancer risks, which has attributed to undermine the people's sense
of security.
It can be assumed that every citizen of the western countries is using
artificial sweeteners--knowingly or not.
A cancer-inducing activity of one of these substances would mean a health
risk to an entire population.
STUDIES: This article gives an overview about the most important
publications dealing with the cancerogenic potential of artificial
sweeteners.
Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 11760654
************************************************** ************

rmforall
09-25-2004, 12:13 AM
************************************************** ************

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1106
hangover research relevant to toxicity of 11% methanol in aspartame
(formaldehyde, formic acid): Calder I (full text): Jones AW: also some
methanol from fruit pectin in colon: Murray 2004.09.11 rmforall

[ NutraSweet, Equal, Canderel, Benevia, E951 ]

Since no adaquate data has ever been published on the exact disposition of
the toxic metabolites, formaldehyde and formic acid, in specific tissues in
humans of the readily released 11% methanol component of aspartame, the many
studies on morning-after hangover from the methanol impurity in alcohol
drinks are the main available resource to date.

Jones AW (1987) found next-morning hangover from red wine with
100 to 150 mg methanol
(9.5% w/v ethanol; 100 mg/l methanol = 0.01%, one part in ten thousand).

The expert review by Monte WC (1984) states: "An alcoholic consuming 1500
calories a day from alcoholic sources alone may consume between 0 and 600 mg
of methanol each day depending on his choice of beverages (Table 1)...."
Table 1 lists red wine as having 128 mg/l methanol, about one part in ten
thousand.

Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol -- 1,120 mg aspartame in 2 L diet soda,
almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol) -- the same
amount that produces hangover from red wine.

Other strong formaldehyde sources are tobacco and wood smoke, and the
particleboard and new furniture, carpet, and drapes especially concentrated
in mobile homes.

Similar potent levels of methanol, and its inevitable products in the human
body, formaldehyde and formic acid, can also ensue from fermentation of
fruit pectins in the colon:

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997 Aug; 21(5): 939-43.
Endogenous production of methanol after the consumption of fruit.
Lindinger W, Taucher J, Jordan A, Hansel A, Vogel W.
Institut fur Ionenphysik, Leopold Franzens Universitat Innsbruck, Austria.

After the consumption of fruit, the concentration of methanol in the human
body increases by as much as an order of magnitude.
This is due to the degradation of natural pectin (which is esterified with
methyl alcohol) in the human colon.
In vivo tests performed by means of proton-transfer-reaction mass
spectrometry show that consumed pectin in either a pure form (10 to 15 g)
or a natural form (in 1 kg of apples) induces a significant increase of
methanol in the breath (and by inference in the blood) of humans.
The amount generated from pectin (0.4 to 1.4 mg)
is approximately equivalent to the total daily endogenous production
(measured to be 0.3 to 0.6 mg/day)
or that obtained from 0.3 liters of 80-proof brandy
(calculated to be 0.5 mg).
[ typos corrected, g actually is mg for ethanol, methanol ]
This dietary pectin may contribute to the development
of nonalcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. PMID: 9267548

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1995 Oct; 19(5): 1147-50.
Methanol in human breath.
Taucher J, Lagg A, Hansel A, Vogel W, Lindinger W.
Institut fur Ionenphysik, Universitat Innsbruck, Austria.

Using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry for trace gas analysis of
the human breath, the concentrations of methanol and ethanol have been
measured for various test persons consuming alcoholic beverages and various
amounts of fruits, respectively.
The methanol concentrations increased from a natural (physiological) level
of approximately 0.4 ppm up to approximately 2 ppm a few hours after eating
about 1/2 kg of fruits,
and about the same concentration was reached after drinking of 100 ml brandy
containing 24% volume of ethanol and 0.19% volume of methanol.
[ 24 ml = 64 mg ethanol and 0.19 ml = 0.33 mg methanol ] PMID: 8561283

These three potent dietary sources of methanol, formaldehyde, and formic
acid, which impact many people, and cause the same symptoms in vulnerable
and sensitized people, are ignored in the following prestigious, official
source:

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1108
faults in 1999 July EPA 468-page formaldehyde profile:
Elzbieta Skrzydlewska PhD, Assc. Prof., Medical U. of Bialystok, Poland,
abstracts -- ethanol, methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetaldehyde,
lipid peroxidation, green tea, aging, Lyme disease:
Murray 2004.08.08 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1109
Toxicological Profile for Formaldehyde 1/4 plain text, start to 111 of 468
pages USA DHHS PHS ATSDR 1999 July: Murray 2004.08.30 rmforall

An editorial review by Ian Calder, F.R.C.A., "Hangovers: not the ethanol--
perhaps the methanol", British Medical Journal 1997 Jan 4; 314(7073): 2
[ Tel/Fax: 0171 720 9279 Consultant Anaesthetist at the National Hospital
for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London WCIN 3BG, UK ]
http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/search.dtl search to get free full text ] ,
states:

"In fact, ethanol itself may play only a minor part in producing the thirst,
headache, fatigue, nausea, sweating, tremor, remorse, and anxiety that
hangover sufferers report.... [ Also, dizziness is common. ]

"Between a quarter and a half of drinkers claim not to experience hangover
symptoms despite having been intoxicated. (three citations)"

The symptom list is similar to reports by aspartame reactors.

If only a fraction of aspartame users happen to be vulnerable to the
methanol, that would account well for the disbelief by those who are not
aspartame reactors, as well as the scientific difficulty in proving
aspartame toxicity in the general population.

Research can study whether the hangover prone are also vulnerable to
aspartame, methanol, formaldehyde, and formic acid, and determine the
specific biochemistry for different groups.

Hangover treatments may help aspartame reactors. For instance, adaquate
folic acid (folate) helps humans eliminate toxic products from methanol.

Reprod Toxicol. 1996 Nov-Dec; 10(6): 455-63.
Influence of dietary folic acid on the developmental toxicity of methanol
and the frequency of chromosomal breakage in the CD-1 mouse.
Fu SS, Sakanashi TM, Rogers JM, Hong KH, Keen CL.
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616, USA.

"These results show that marginal folate deficiency in pregnant dams
significantly increases the teratogenicity of MeOH." PMID: 8946559

There are no reports of hangover from heavy use of orange juice, 34 mg/l
methanol, since the methanol in many fruits and vegetables is locked up in
complex pectin molecules, not released by human digestion. (Monte WC 1984)

I've never found any reports by aspartame reactors, who are often sensitive
even to a single breath mint or stick of chewing gum
(0.4 to 0.8 mg methanol),
of having the same symptoms from fruits or vegetables.

Pharmacol Toxicol. 1987 Mar; 60(3): 217-20.
Elimination half-life of methanol during hangover.
Jones AW.
Department of Forensic Toxicology, University Hospital, SE-581 85 Linkoping,
Sweden. wayne.jones@RMV.se

This paper reports the elimination half-life of methanol in human
volunteers. Experiments were made during the morning after the subjects had
consumed 1000-1500 ml red wine (9.5% w/v ethanol, 100 mg/l methanol)
the previous evening. [ 100 to 150 mg methanol ]
The washout of methanol from the body coincided with the onset of hangover.
The concentrations of ethanol and methanol in blood were determined
indirectly by analysis of end-expired alveolar air.
In the morning when blood-ethanol dropped below the Km of liver alcohol
dehydrogenase (ADH) of about 100 mg/l (2.2 mM), the disappearance half-life
of ethanol was 21, 22, 18 and 15 min. in 4 test subjects respectively.
The corresponding elimination half-lives of methanol were 213, 110, 133 and
142 min. in these same individuals.
The experimental design outlined in this paper can be used to obtain useful
data on elimination kinetics of methanol in human volunteers without undue
ethical limitations.
Circumstantial evidence is presented to link methanol or its toxic metabolic
products, formaldehyde and formic acid, with the pathogenesis of hangover.
PMID: 3588516

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1047
Avoiding Hangover Hell 2003.12.31 Mark Sherman, AP writer:
Robert Swift, MD [ formaldehyde from methanol in aspartame ]:
Murray 2004.01.16 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1048
hangovers from formaldehyde from methanol (aspartame?):
Schwarcz: Linsley: Murray 2004.01.18

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1099
Diagnose-Me.com: formaldehyde from 11 % methanol part of aspartame:
recent abstracts for methanol and hangovers: Murray 2004.07.10 rmforall

http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/search.dtl search to get free full text
British Medial Journal 1997 (4 January); 314(7073): 2.
Ian Calder, F.R.C.A. [ Tel/Fax: 0171 720 9279 Consultant Anaesthetist at
the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery,
London WCIN 3BG, UK ]

Editorials Hangovers: Not the ethanol - perhaps the methanol

"Wine is only sweet to happy men," wrote an unhappy John Keats to his
sweetheart.(1) His observation seems to have been vindicated.

Harburg et al found that psychosocial factors such as guilt about drinking,
a neurotic personality, becoming angry or depressed while drinking, and
having suffered "negative life events" in the past 12 months are better
predictors of symptoms of hangover than the amount of ethanol drunk.(2)

In fact, ethanol itself may play only a minor part in producing the thirst,
headache, fatigue, nausea, sweating, tremor, remorse, and anxiety that
hangover sufferers report.
Hangover symptoms are worst at a time when almost all ethanol and its
metabolite acetaldehyde have been cleared from the blood, and peak blood
ethanol or acetaldehyde levels are not related to the severity of
hangover.(3 )

Between a quarter and a half of drinkers claim not to experience hangover
symptoms despite having been intoxicated.(2, 3, 4)

Congeners - complex organic molecules such as polyphenols, higher alcohols
including methanol, and histamine, which occur in varying amounts in
ethanolic drinks - are probably more to blame than ethanol.

Chapman found that hangover symptoms were almost twice as common in
volunteers who drank 1.5 ml/kg [ body weight ] of bourbon whiskey - which
has methanol concentrations of 26 mg/l - as in those drinking the same dose
of vodka ( 3.9 mg of methanol per litre ). (5) [ For a 60 kg person, this
would be 90 mg bourbon, 0.09 l, giving 2.34 mg methanol, which led to twice
as many symptoms as the 0.35 mg methanol from vodka. The bourbon gave as
about as much methanol as an ounce of diet soda. ]

Pawan compared the hangover produced by different types of drink (but only
one brand of each) in his study of 20 volunteers. The severity of hangover
symptoms declined in the order of brandy, red wine, rum, whisky, white wine,
gin, vodka, and pure ethanol.(6) Vodka and pure ethanol caused only mild
headaches in two volunteers.

Jones has suggested that it is the metabolism of methanol to formaldehyde
and formic acid that causes symptoms of hangover, with quicker methanol
metabolisers suffering more.(7) The justification for this suggestion is
threefold:
the types of drink associated with more severe hangovers contain higher
levels of methanol;
the time course of methanol metabolism corresponds to the onset of symptoms;
and a small dose of ethanol, which blocks the formation of formaldehyde and
formic acid, provides an effective treatment for hangovers ("the hair of the
dog").

The economic and social consequences of hangovers are probably considerable
but difficult to quantify. Performance accuracy is impaired synergistically
by sleep deprivation and hangover.(8)
Drivers perform less well in simulators when tested the morning after
drinking ethanol.(9)
Making driving with a hangover a criminal offence might be logical, but is
probably impractical in the absence of a simple diagnostic test like breath
alcohol.

Many pathophysiological disturbances occur during hangover, including
dehydration; metabolic acidosis; hypoglycaemia; disturbed prostaglandin
synthesis; abnormal secretion of vasopressin, cortisol, aldosterone,
renin, and testosterone; increased cardiac output; tachycardia; and
vasodilatation.

Hypoglycaemia and acidosis can be treated with fructose or glucose,(9) and
the cardiovascular abnormalities with ß blockade,(10) but symptoms are not
alleviated.
However, rehydration and anti-inflammatory analgesics are helpful,
particularly if treatment is started before bedtime.(11)

A completely effective treatment is probably unattainable (since so many
factors - such as lack of sleep, active or passive smoking, dietary
indiscretions, unaccustomed physical activity, intermittent upper airway
obstruction, and emotional disturbances - must play a part) and is arguably
undesirable since the fear of hangover prompts most people to moderate their
ethanol intake.(4 )

Even moderate amounts of ethanol can be damaging,(12) so a penalty for
consumption is in our interests. Perhaps those who aspire to be one of Dr
Johnson's "heroes" by drinking brandy (13) are sensible as well as brave.

Ian Calder, Consultant anaesthetist, Department of Neuroanaesthesia,
National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery,
Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG UK

1. Keats J. Letter to Fanny Brawne. In: Tripp RT, ed. The international
thesaurus of quotations. England: Penguin, 1976: 266.

2. Harburg E, Gunn R, Gleiberman L, DiFranceisco W, Schork A.
Psychosocial factors, alcohol use and hangover signs among social drinkers:
a reappraisal.
J Clin Epidemiol 1993; 46: 413-22. [Medline]

3. Ylikahri RH, Huttunen M, Eriksson CJ, Nikkila EA.
Metabolic studies on the pathogenesis of hangover.
Eur J Clin Invest 1974; 4: 93-100.

4. Smith CM, Barnes GM.
Signs and symptoms of hangover; prevalence and relationship to alcohol use
in a generally adult population.
Drug Alcohol Depend 1983; 11: 249-69. [Medline]

5. Chapman LF.
Experimental induction of hangover.
Q J Stud Alcohol 1970; 5: 67-85. [Medline]

6. Pawan GLS.
Alcoholic drinks and hangover effects.
Proc Nutr Soc 1973; 32: 15A.

7. Jones AW.
Elimination half-life of methanol during hangover.
Pharmacol Toxicol 1987; 60; 217-20.

8. Peeke SC, Callaway E, Jones RT, Stone GC, Doyle J.
Combined effect of alcohol and sleep deprivation in normal young adults.
Psychopharmacol 1980; 67: 279-87. [Medline]

9. Seppala T, Leino T, Linnoila M, Huttunen MO, Ylikahri RH.
Effects of hangover on psychomotor skills related to driving: modification
by fructose and glucose.
Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 1976; 38: 209-18.

10. Bogin RM, Nostrant TT, Young MJ.
Propranolol for the treatment of the alcoholic hangover.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1986; 12: 279-84.

11. Khan MA, Jensen K, Krogh HJ.
Alcohol induced hangover. A double blind comparison of pyritinol and placebo
in preventing hangover symptoms.
Q J Stud Alcohol 1973; 34: 1195-201. [Medline]

12. Karhunen PJ, Erkinjuntti T, Laippala P.
Moderate alcohol consumption and loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells.
BMJ 1994; 308: 1663-7.

13. Boswell J.
Life of Johnson. April 7th 1779. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1970.

This article has been cited by other articles:

M. H. Pittler, A. R. White, C. Stevinson, and E. Ernst.
Effectiveness of artichoke extract in preventing alcohol-induced hangovers:
a randomized controlled trial
Can. Med. Assoc. J., December 9, 2003; 169(12): 1269 - 1273.
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

W. T Thompson, M. E Cupples, C. H Sibbett, D. I Skan, and T. Bradley.
Challenge of culture, conscience, and contract to general practitioners'
care of their own health: qualitative study
BMJ, September 29, 2001; 323(7315): 728 - 731.
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

© 2004 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd
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rmforall
09-25-2004, 12:14 AM
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http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1100
research on aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity:
Murray 2004.09.17 rmforall

[ NutraSweet, Equal, Canderel, Benevia, E951 ]

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/927
Donald Rumsfeld, 1977 head of Searle Corp., got aspartame FDA approval:
Turner: Murray 2002.12.23 rmforall

A very detailed, highly credible account of the dubious approval process for
aspartame in July, 1981 is part of the just released two-hour documentary
"Sweet Misery, A Poisoned World: An Industry Case Study of a Food Supply
In Crisis" by Cori Brackett: cori@soundandfuryproductions.com
http://www.soundandfuryproductions.com/ 520-624-9710
2301 East Broadway, Suite 111 Tucson, AZ 85719

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/messages
131 members, 1,115 posts in a public searchable archive

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartame/messages
838 members, 17,402 posts in a public, searchable archive

Poor memory is one of the main early complaints of aspartame reactors, who
are often people who use over 6 cans ( 2 L) diet soda daily for years.

The 6 experimental rats in this recent economical, focused pilot study by
McConnaughey M et al (2004 May), drank a comparable level for 4 months,
about 13% of a 30-month lifespan. It is an excellent introduction to the
main issues.

Only after 3 months did the 6 aspartame rats show almost a doubling of time
to run a single-choice maze.

At 4 months, there was almost another doubling of delay: "...two of the
treated rats even went to the wrong side of the T-maze, totally forgetting
where the reward was." These are very powerful, worrisome results.

There were highly significant, neurologically relevant changes in certain
brain receptor densities, and changes in brain chemistry.

With 70 citations, the relevant scientific literature is well summarized.
Many other studies, often industry funded, often used single doses or
too short durations of exposure, along with lower doses, thus rarely proving
memory deficits.

The funding source for this extremely valuable study is not given.
It used a team of talented high school students.

The fact that certain brain receptor densitities increased, and that memory
deficit increase took 3 months to be significant, may reflect the paradox of
hormesis, the complex ability of organisms to make themselves stronger in
response to low levels of toxins:

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1055
hormesis: possible benefits of low-level aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde)
use: Calabrese: Soffritti: Murray 2004.03.11 rmforall

The most toxic part of the fragile aspartame molecule is its 11% methanol
component.

It is an open secret, admitted in a number of published studies for three
decades, that methanol is converted within hours by the liver into
formaldehyde and formic acid, both potent, cumulative toxins that affect all
cell types.

Few know that the classic "morning after" hangover from dark wines and
liquors is largely due to formaldehyde and formic acid from methanol
contamination, not the ethanol itself.

The actual disposition of these toxins in the tissues of human aspartame
reactors has never been determined, or, if determined, never publicly
published.

The study should be replicated, using methanol, formaldehyde, and formic
acid to verify if the same results obtain.

If blood and tissue samples have been stored, then the fast, cheap,
automated, highly sensitive Comet assay, often used to prove DNA damage from
formaldehyde, can be used to replicate the results by Yu F. Sakaki (2002),
whose intripid and much published team in Japan has found DNA damage,
testing 8 tissues from single non-lethal doses of aspartame
(near-significant high levels of DNA damage in 5 tissues) and 38 other
additives in groups of just 4 mice:

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/935
Comet assay finds DNA damage from sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin in
mice: Sasaki YF & Tsuda S Aug 2002: Murray 2003.01.01 rmforall
[ Also borderline evidence, in this pilot study of 39 food additives,
using test groups of 4 mice, for DNA damage from for stomach, colon,
liver, bladder, and lung 3 hr after oral dose of 2000 mg/kg aspartame--
a very high dose. Methanol is the only component of aspartame that can lead
to DNA damage. ]

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1108
faults in 1999 July EPA 468-page formaldehyde profile:
Elzbieta Skrzydlewska PhD, Assc. Prof., Medical U. of Bialystok, Poland,
abstracts -- ethanol, methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetaldehyde,
lipid peroxidation, green tea, aging, Lyme disease:
Murray 2004.08.08 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1088
Murray, full plain text & critique:
chronic aspartame in rats affects memory, brain cholinergic receptors, and
brain chemistry, Christian B, McConnaughey M et al, 2004 May:
2004.06.05 rmforall

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004 May; 78(1): 121-7.
Chronic aspartame affects T-maze performance, brain cholinergic receptors
and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in rats.
Christian B, McConnaughey K, Bethea E, Brantley S, Coffey A, Hammond L,
Harrell S, Metcalf K, Muehlenbein D, Spruill W, Brinson L, McConnaughey M.
Department of Pharmacology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina
University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA;
North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics, Durham, NC 27811.
http://www.ecu.edu/pharmacology/faculty/mcconnaughey.html
Mona M. McConnaughey, Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor
Department: PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY
Office: Brody Medical Science 6E-120A 252-744-2756
MCCONNAUGHEYM@mail.ecu.edu

This study demonstrated that chronic aspartame consumption in rats can lead
to altered T-maze performance and increased muscarinic cholinergic receptor
densities in certain brain regions.
Control and treated rats were trained in a T-maze to a particular side and
then periodically tested to see how well they retained the learned response.
Rats that had received aspartame (250 mg/kg/day) in the drinking water for 3
or 4 months showed a significant increase in time to reach the reward in the
T-maze, suggesting a possible effect on memory due to the artificial
sweetener. Using [(3)H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) (1 nM) to label
muscarinic cholinergic receptors and atropine (10(-6) M) to determine
nonspecific binding in whole-brain preparations,
aspartame-treated rats showed a 31% increase in receptor numbers when
compared to controls.
In aspartame-treated rats, there was a significant increase in muscarinic
receptor densities in the frontal cortex, midcortex, posterior cortex,
hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebellum of 80%, 60%, 61%, 65%,
66% and 60%, respectively.
The midbrain was the only area where preparations from aspartame-treated
rats showed a significant increase in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity.
It can be concluded from these data that long-term consumption of aspartame
can affect T-maze performance in rats and alter receptor densities or
enzymes in brain. PMID: 15159141

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1067
eyelid contact dermatitis by formaldehyde from aspartame, AM Hill & DV
Belsito, Nov 2003: Murray 2004.03.30 rmforall [ 150 KB ]

"A 60-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 6-month history of eyelid
dermatitis...

By strictly avoiding formaldehyde and all formaldehyde releasers for the
next 3 weeks, she improved only slightly.

Her problem, however, was subsequently solved when a local pharmacist
advised her to avoid aspartame.

She had begun using an aspartame-based artificial sweetener 5 months prior
to the onset of her dermatitis. [ 12 months of low-level aspartame use until
stopping. ]

Within 1 week of discontinuing the aspartame, her eyelid dermatitis resolved
completely and has not recurred over 18 months without specific
treatment....

Our patient was consuming an average of 80 mg (1.13 mg/kg) of aspartame
daily, well below the levels previously studied."

[ A packet of tabletop sweetener gives 37 mg aspartame, while a 12 oz diet
soda gives 200 mg aspartame. An aspartame reactor can have immediate strong
symtoms from an under-the-tongue wafer with 4 mg aspartame. ]

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1039
three-page review: aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde) toxicity:
Murray 2003.11.22 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1026
brief aspartame review: formaldehyde toxicity: Murray 2003.09.11 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1025
aspartame & formaldehyde toxicity: Murray 2003.09.09 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1094
the 11% methanol component of aspartame becomes formaldehyde, now ruled a
carcinogen by WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer: Murray
2004.06.16 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1084
26 stevia safety abstracts since 1993: aspartame vs stevia debate on
alt.support.diabetes, George Schmidt, OD: Murray 2004.05.25 rmforall

A Searle Laboratories team in 1976 reported that in 4 monkeys fed aspartame,
by 12 hours: "...the major fraction (70%) of the [aspartate] label appeared
in the expired air (Fig.6)...Urinary and fecal 14C [ aspartate derived ]
amounted to 4--6% of the administered [ aspartate ] label."

This gives a total of a maximum 76% excreted aspartate from the aspartame,
indicating that 24% of this excitotoxin was retained in the body. It is
reasonable to conclude that daily use of aspartame must lead to substantial
accumulation of this excitotoxin, aspartate, in body tissues.

Their 1979 review said: "Aspartame... is hydrolyzed in the gut to yield
aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol....
Aspartate may also be incorporated into body constitutents such as other
amino acids, proteins, pyrimidines, asparagine, and N-acetylaspartic acid."

J Environ Pathol Toxicol. 1979 Mar-Apr; 2(4): 979-85.
A review of the metabolism of the aspartyl moiety of aspartame in
experimental animals and man.
Ranney RE, Oppermann JA.
Department of Drug Metabolism and Radiochemistry, Searle Laboratories,
Skokie, Illinois. Division of G.D. Searle and Co. Box 5110, Chicago, IL
60680

Aspartame (3-amino-N-(alpha-carboxyphenethyl) succinamic acid, methyl ester;
the methyl ester of aspartylphenylalanine, SC-18862) is hydrolyzed in the
gut to yield aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol.
This review of the literature describes the metabolic paths followed by
aspartate in its conversion to CO2 or its incorporation into body
constituents. About 70 percent of 14C from [asp-14C]-aspartame is converted
in the monkey to 14CO2.
Some of the aspartate is converted at the intestinal mucosal level to
alanine by decarboxylation.
This amino acid may be oxidized to CO2 by entering the tricarboxylic acid
cycle via pyruvate and acetyl CoA.
In addition, transamination of aspartate to oxaloacetate permits this
product also to enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
Aspartate may also be incorporated into body constitutents such as other
amino acids, proteins, pyrimidines, asparagine, and N-acetylaspartic acid.
It is concluded that the aspartate moiety of aspartame is metabolized in a
manner similar to that of dietary aspartic acid.
Publication Types: Review PMID: 376770

It is certain that high levels of aspartame use, above 2 liters daily for
months and years, must lead to chronic formaldehyde-formic acid toxicity.

Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol-- 1,120 mg aspartame in 2 L diet soda,
almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol).
The methanol is immediately released into the body after drinking--
unlike the large levels of methanol locked up in complex molecules inside
many fruits and vegetables.
Within hours, the liver turns much of the methanol into formaldehyde, and
then much of that into formic acid, both of which in time are partially
eliminated as carbon dioxide and water.

However, about 30% of the methanol remains in the body as cumulative
durable toxic metabolites of formaldehyde and formic acid-- 37 mg daily,
a gram every month, accumulating in and affecting every tissue.

If only 10% of the methanol is retained daily as formaldehyde, that would
give 12 mg daily formaldehyde accumulation-- about 60 times more than the
0.2 mg from 10% retention of the 2 mg EPA daily limit for formaldehyde in
drinking water.

Bear in mind that the EPA limit for formaldehyde in drinking water is
1 ppm, or 2 mg daily for a typical daily consumption of 2 L of water.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/835
ATSDR: EPA limit 1 ppm formaldehyde in drinking water July 1999:
Murray 2002.05.30 rmforall

This long-term low-level chronic toxic exposure leads to typical patterns of
increasingly severe complex symptoms, starting with headache, fatigue, joint
pain, irritability, memory loss, rashes, and leading to vision and eye
problems, and even seizures. In many cases there is addiction. Probably
there are immune system disorders, with a hypersensitivity to these toxins
and other chemicals.

J. Nutrition 1973 Oct; 103(10): 1454-1459.
Metabolism of aspartame in monkeys.
Oppermann JA, Muldoon E, Ranney RE.
Dept. of Biochemistry, Searle Laboratories,
Division of G.D. Searle and Co. Box 5110, Chicago, IL 60680
They found that about 70% of the radioactive methanol in aspartame put into
the stomachs of 3 to 7 kg monkeys was eliminated within 8 hours, with little
additional elimination, as carbon dioxide in exhaled air and as water in
the urine. They did not mention that this meant that about 30% of the
methanol must transform into formaldehyde and then into formic acid, both of
which must remain as toxic products in all parts of the body.
They did not report any studies on the distribution of radioactivity in body
tissues, except that blood plasma proteins after 4 days held 4% of the
initial methanol. This study did not monitor long-term use of aspartame.

The low oral dose of aspartame and for methanol was 0.068 mmol/kg, about 1
part per million [ppm] of the acute toxicity level of 2,000 mg/kg, 67,000
mmol/kg, used by McMartin (1979).
Two L daily use of diet soda provides 123 mg methanol, 2 mg/kg for a 60 kg
person, a dose of 67 mmole/kg, a thousand times more than the dose in this
study. By eight hours excretion of the dose in air and urine had leveled off
at 67.1 +-2.1% as CO2 in the exhaled air and 1.57+-0.32% in the urine,
so 68.7% was excreted, and 31.3% was retained.
This data is the average of 4 monkeys.
"...the 14C in the feces was negligible."

"That fraction not so excreted (about 31%) was converted to body
constituents through the one-carbon metabolic pool."
"All radioactivity measurements were counted to +-1% accuracy..."
This indicates that the results could not be claimed to have a precision of
a tenth of a percent. OK, so this is a nit-pick-- but I believe espousing
spurious accuracy is a sign of scientific insecurity.

The abstract ends,
"It was concluded that aspartame was digested to its three constituents that
were then absorbed as natural constituents of the diet.
Thus, the concept is very subtly insinuated that methanol, as a constituent
of aspartame, is absorbed as a natural constituent of the diet."
"Dietary methanol is derived in large part from fresh fruits and
vegetables."
This is a serious error, since the large amounts of methanol in fresh
fruits and vegetables, locked up in complex pectin molecules, are not
released by normal human digestion. ( Monte WC, 1984) Nowhere in this
report are mentioned the dread words, "formaldehyde" and "formic acid".

Of course, methanol and formaldehyde toxicity studies are highly relevant to
the issue of aspartame toxicity. [ Aspartame has to be turned into its
toxic products, formaldehyde and formic acid, in the body, before it is
toxic, so some pro-aspartame reseach studies test aspartame outside the
body, and then proclaim that they have proved that it is not toxic. ]

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/915
formaldehyde toxicity: Thrasher & Kilburn: Shaham: EPA: Gold:
Wilson: CIIN: Murray 2002.12.12 rmforall

Thrasher (2001): "The major difference is that the Japanese demonstrated
the incorporation of FA and its metabolites into the placenta and fetus.
The quantity of radioactivity remaining in maternal and fetal tissues
at 48 hours was 26.9% of the administered dose." [ Ref. 14-16 ]

Arch Environ Health 2001 Jul-Aug; 56(4): 300-11.
Embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of formaldehyde. [100 references]
Thrasher JD, Kilburn KH. toxicology@drthrasher.org
Sam-1 Trust, Alto, New Mexico, USA.
http://www.drthrasher.org/formaldehyde_embryo_toxicity.html full text

http://www.drthrasher.org/formaldehyde_1990.html full text Jack Dwayne
Thrasher, Alan Broughton, Roberta Madison. Immune activation and
autoantibodies in humans with long-term inhalation exposure to formaldehyde.
Archives of Environmental Health. 1990; 45: 217-223. "Immune activation,
autoantibodies, and anti-HCHO-HSA antibodies are associated with long-term
formaldehyde inhalation." PMID: 2400243

Confirming evidence and a general theory are given by Pall (2002):
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/909
testable theory of MCS type diseases, vicious cycle of nitric oxide &
peroxynitrite: MSG: formaldehyde-methanol-aspartame:
Martin L. Pall: Murray: 2002.12.09 rmforall

Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Sep; 111(12): 1461-4.
Elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite theory of multiple chemical sensitivity:
central role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the sensitivity mechanism.
Pall ML.
School of Molecular Biosciences, 301 Abelson Hall, Washington State
University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA. martin_pall@wsu.edu

The elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite and the neural sensitization
theories of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) are extended here to propose
a central mechanism for the exquisite sensitivity to organic solvents
apparently induced by previous chemical exposure in MCS.
This mechanism is centered on the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)
receptors by organic solvents producing elevated nitric oxide and
peroxynitrite, leading in turn to increased stimulating of and
hypersensitivity of NMDA receptors.
In this way, organic solvent exposure may produce progressive sensitivity to
organic solvents.
Pesticides such as organophosphates and carbamates may act via muscarinic
stimulation to produce a similar biochemical and sensitivity response.
Accessory mechanisms of sensitivity may involve both increased blood-brain
barrier permeability, induced by peroxynitrite, and cytochrome P450
inhibition by nitric oxide.
The NMDA hyperactivity/hypersensitivity and excessive nitric
oxide/peroxynitrite view of MCS provides answers to many of the most
puzzling aspects of MCS while building on previous studies and views of this
condition. PMID: 12948884

Prof. Pall describes processes by which an initial trigger exposure, such as
carbon monoxide or formaldehyde, can generate hypersensitivity to many
substances. He himself had recovered from a sudden, debilitating attack of
multiple chemical sensitivity in June/July 1997.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1055
hormesis: possible benefits of low-level aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde)
use: Calabrese: Soffritti: Murray 2004.03.11 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1056
disorders of NMDA glutamate receptors in brain range from high activity
(MCS, CF, PTSD, FM, from carbon monoxide or formaldehyde (methanol,
aspartame)-- Pall)
to low activity (schizophrenia-- Coyle, Goff, Javitts):
Murray 2004.03.13 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1090
aspartame, MSG, excitotoxins, NMDA glutamate receptors, multiple sclerosis:
Blaylock: Martini: Murray 2004.06.09 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/97
Lancet website aspartame letter 1999.07.29:
Excitotoxins 1999 Part 1/3 Blaylock: Murray 2000.01.14 rmforall
The Medical Sentinel Journal 1999 Fall; (95 references)
http://www.dorway.com/blayenn.html

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/946
Functional Therapeutics in Neurodegenerative Disease Part 1/2:
Perlmutter 1999.07.15: Murray 2003.01.10 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1034
Brain cell damage from amino acid isolates (aspartame releases
phenylalanine, aspartate, methanol [formaldehyde, formic acid] Bowen &
Evangelista May 6 2002: Murray 2003.11.10 rmforall

http://www.aspartame.ca/Brain%20Cell%20Damage.pdf
Brain cell damage from amino acid isolates 5.6.2 41 references
detailed 22 page review by James D. Bowen, MD and Arthur M. Evangelista,
former FDA Investigator orwilly@msn.com

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/628
Professional House Doctors: Singer: EPA: CPSC:
formaldehyde toxicity: Murray 2001.06.10 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1052
DMDC: Dimethyl dicarbonate 200mg/L in drinks adds methanol 98 mg/L
( becomes formaldehyde in body ): EU Scientific Committee on Foods
2001.07.12: Murray 2004.01.22 rmforall

rmforall
09-25-2004, 12:17 AM
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/782
RTM: Smith, Terpening, Schmidt, Gums:
full text: aspartame, MSG, fibromyalgia 2002.01.17 rmforall
Jerry D Smith, Chris M Terpening, Siegfried OF Schmidt, and John G Gums
Relief of Fibromyalgia Symptoms Following
Discontinuation of Dietary Excitotoxins.
The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2001; 35(6): 702-706.
Malcolm Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville, FL, USA.
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a common rheumatologic disorder that is
often difficult to treat effectively.
CASE SUMMARY: Four patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome
for two to 17 years are described.
All had undergone multiple treatment
modalities with limited success. All had complete, or nearly complete,
resolution of their symptoms within months after eliminating monosodium
glutamate (MSG) or MSG plus aspartame from their diet.
All patients were women with multiple comorbidities
prior to elimination of MSG.
All have had recurrence of symptoms whenever MSG is ingested.

Siegfried O. Schmidt, MD Asst. Clinical Prof. siggy@shands.ufl.edu
Community Health and Family Medicine, U. Florida, Gainesville, FL
Shands Hospital West Oak Clinic Gainesville, FL 32608-3629
352-376-5071

http://www.perque.com/ info@perque.com 800-525-7372
http://www.perque.org/Fibromyalgia.pdf
A Novel Treatment for Fibromyalgia Imrpoves Clinical Outcomes in a
Community-Based Study.
Patricia A. Deuster, Russell M. Jaffe. RJaffe@perque.com
Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain. 1998; Vol. 6(2): 133-149.

Using blood tests, the researchers ran a panel of 350 antigens including
environmental chemicals, food additives and preservatives, crustaceans,
diary products, fish, fruits, grains, meats, mollusks, and oils.

Normal, healthy people react to only two or less of this panel. The greatest
offenders were:

MSG 42.5 % (17 out of 40 patients)
Candida albicans 37.5
Caffeine 37
Chocolate/cocoa 37
Food colorings 37
Cola beverages 37
Cow Dairy Products 25
Sulfite/metabisulfite 22.5
Xylene 22.5
Yogurt 22.5
Aspartame 20
BHA 20
Cadmium 20
Lead 20
Tylenol 20
Yeast 20
Sodium benzoate 20
Orange 20

C. Trocho (1998):
"In all, the rats retained, 6 hours after administration, about 5% of the
label, half of it in the liver."

They used a very low level of aspartame ingestion, 10 mg/kg, for rats, which
have a much greater tolerance for aspartame than humans.
So, the corresponding level for humans would be about 1 or 2 mg/kg.
Many headache studies in humans used doses of about 30 mg/kg daily.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/925
aspartame puts formaldehyde adducts into tissues, Part 1/2
full text, Trocho & Alemany 1998.06.26: Murray 2002.12.22 rmforall

http://ww.presidiotex.com/barcelona/index.html full text
Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue components in
vivo. Life Sci June 26 1998; 63(5): 337-49.
Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular,
Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
http://www.bq.ub.es/cindex.html L*nies de Recerca: Toxicitat de
l'aspartame http://www.bq.ub.es/grupno/grup-no.html
Sra. Carme Trocho, Sra. Rosario Pardo, Dra. Immaculada Rafecas,
Sr. Jordi Virgili, Dr. Xavier Remesar, Dr. Jose Antonio
Fernandez-Lopez, Dr. Mari* Alemany [male]
Fac. Biologia Tel.: (93)4021521, FAX: (93)4021559
Sra. Carme Trocho "Trok-ho" Fac. Biologia Tel.: (93)4021544,
FAX: (93)4021559
alemany@porthos.bio.ub.es ; bioq@sun.bq.ub.es

Abstract:
Adult male rats were given an oral dose of 10 mg/kg aspartame,
14C-labeled in the methanol carbon.
At timed intervals of up to 6 hours, the radioactivity in plasma and several
organs was investigated.
Most of the radioactivity found (>98% in plasma, >75% in liver) was bound to
protein.
Label present in liver, plasma and kidney was in the range of 1-2% of total
radioactivity administered per g or mL, changing little with time.
Other organs (brown and white adipose tissues, muscle, brain, cornea and
retina) contained levels of label in the range of 1/12th to 1/10th of that
of liver.
In all, the rats retained, 6 hours after administration, about 5% of the
label, half of it in the liver.

The specific radioactivity of tissue protein, RNA and DNA was quite uniform.
The protein label was concentrated in amino acids, different from
methionine, and largely coincident with the result of protein exposure to
labeled formaldehyde.
DNA radioactivity was essentially in a single different adduct base,
different from the normal bases present in DNA.
The nature of the tissue label accumulated was, thus, a direct consequence
of formaldehyde binding to tissue structures.

The administration of labeled aspartame to a group of cirrhotic rats
resulted in comparable label retention by tissue components, which suggests
that liver function (or its defect) has little effect on formaldehyde
formation from aspartame and binding to biological components.

The chronic treatment of a series of rats with 200 mg/kg of non-labeled
aspartame during 10 days results in the accumulation of even more label when
given the radioactive bolus, suggesting that the amount of formaldehyde
adducts coming from aspartame in tissue proteins and nucleic acids may be
cumulative.

It is concluded that aspartame consumption may constitute a hazard because
of its contribution to the formation of formaldehyde adducts. PMID: 9714421

[ Extracts ]
"The high label presence in plasma and liver is in agreement with the
carriage of the label from the intestine to the liver via the portal vein.
The high label levels in kidney and, to a minor extent, in brown adipose
tissue and brain are probably a consequence of their high blood flows (45).
Even in white adipose tissue, the levels of radioactivity found 6 hours
after oral administration were 1/25th those of liver.
Cornea and retina, both tissues known to metabolize actively methanol
(21,28) showed low levels of retained label.
In any case, the binding of methanol-derived carbon to tissue proteins was
widespread, affecting all systems, fully reaching even sensitive targets
such as the brain and retina....

The amount of label recovered in tissue components was quite high in all the
groups, but especially in the NA rats.
In them, the liver alone retained, for a long time, more than 2 % of the
methanol carbon given in a single oral dose of aspartame, and the rest of
the body stored an additional 2 % or more.
These are indeed extremely high levels for adducts of formaldehyde, a
substance responsible of chronic deleterious effects (33), that has also
been considered carcinogenic (34,47).
The repeated occurrence of claims that aspartame produces headache and other
neurological and psychological secondary effects-- more often than not
challenged by careful analysis-- (5, 9, 10, 15, 48) may eventually find at
least a partial explanation in the permanence of the formaldehyde label,
since formaldehyde intoxication can induce similar effects (49).

The cumulative effects derived from the incorporation of label in the
chronic administration model suggests that regular intake of aspartame may
result in the progressive accumulation of formaldehyde adducts.
It may be further speculated that the formation of adducts can help to
explain the chronic effects aspartame consumption may induce on sensitive
tissues such as brain (6, 9, 19, 50).
In any case, the possible negative effects that the accumulation of
formaldehyde adducts can induce is, obviously, long-term.
The alteration of protein integrity and function may needs some time to
induce substantial effects.
The damage to nucleic acids, mainly to DNA, may eventually induce cell death

and/or mutations.
The results presented suggest that the conversion of aspartame methanol into
formaldehyde adducts in significant amounts in vivo should to be taken into
account because of the widespread utilization of this sweetener.
Further epidemiological and long-term studies are needed to determine the
extent of the hazard that aspartame consumption poses for humans."

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/864
Butchko, Tephly, McMartin: Alemany: aspartame formaldehyde
adducts in rats: Murray 2002.09.08 rmforall
Prof. Alemany vigorously affirms the validity of the Trocho study
against criticism:
Butchko, HH et al [24 authors], Aspartame: review of safety.
Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2002 April 1; 35 (2 Pt 2): S1-93, review
available for $35, [an industry paid organ]. Butchko:
"When all the research on aspartame, including evaluations in both the
premarketing and postmarketing periods, is examined as a whole, it is
clear that aspartame is safe, and there are no unresolved questions
regarding its safety under conditions of intended use."
[ They repeatedly pass on the ageless industry deceit that the methanol
in fruits and vegetables is as as biochemically available as that in
aspartame-- see the 1984 rebuttal by W.C. Monte. ]
In the same report, Schiffman concludes on page S49, not citing any
research after 1997, "Thus, the weight of the scientific evidence
indicates that aspartame does not cause headache."
Dr. Susan S. Schiffman, Dept. of Psychiatry, Duke University
sss@acpub.duke.edu 919-684-3303, 660-5657

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/911
RTP ties to industry criticized by CSPI: Murray: 2002.12.09 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/846
aspartame in Merck Maxalt-MLT worsens migraine,
AstraZeneca Zomig, Eli Lilly Zyprexa,
J&J Merck Pepcid AC (Famotidine 10mg) Chewable Tab,
Pfizer Cool Mint Listerine Pocketpaks: Murray 2002.07.16 rmforall

Migraine MLT-Down: an unusual presentation of migraine
in patients with aspartame-triggered headaches.
Newman LC, Lipton RB Headache 2001 Oct; 41(9): 899-901.
[ Merck 10-mg Maxalt-MLT, for migraine, has 3.75 mg aspartame,
while 12 oz diet soda has 200 mg. ]
Headache Institute, St. Lukes-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY
Department of Neurology newmanache@aol.com
Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
Innovative Medical Research RLipton@aecom.yu.edu

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/855
Blumenthall & Vance: aspartame chewing gum headaches Nov 1997:
Murray 2002.07.28 rmforall

Harvey J. Blumenthal, MD, Dwight A Vance, RPh
Chewing Gum Headaches. Headache 1997 Nov-Dec; 37(10): 665-6.
Department of Neurology, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine,
Tulsa, USA. neurotulsa@aol.com
Aspartame, a popular dietetic sweetener, may provoke headache in some
susceptible individuals. Herein, we describe three cases of young women
with migraine who reported their headaches could be provoked by chewing
gum sweetened with aspartame. [ 6-8 mg aspartame per stick chewing gum ]

Subject: Re: Murray: Butchko:

Tephly: critique of Trocho report Apr 2002 8.29.2
Date: Fri, 30 Aug 2002 09:49:56 +0200
From: Mari* Alemany alemany@bio.ub.es
To: Rich Murray rmforall@att.net
References: 1

Dear Rich,

Thank you for the opportunity to say something about the "paper" by Tephly
that followed our study on the incorporation of aspartame-derived methanol
label into DNA and protein of rats.
I don't know if responding to that publication is worth the effort.

Surprisingly, a serious journal, such as Life Sciences published a rebuttal
of our previous paper as a normal "research paper", but including no new
information neither experimental work.
This is only a sample of the "scientific" power of the advocates of
aspartame.

Anybody can extract conclusions from this anomaly, but it seems to me that
there was nothing new in that pamphlet that may add information to what we
already explained in our paper.
The responses to the questions raised by Tephly are already in our paper,
which means that either that it was not read or, worst, it was misread.

The presence of aspartame-derived label in DNA and protein adducts is
unquestionable and unquestioned, and agrees with previous studies.
Then, what importance has the mechanism of incorporation?
There were adducts, and they represent loss of function and mutation.
That was our thesis.

The reference to previous studies showing very low levels of formaldehyde in
blood do not refute our data.
First of all, measuring formaldehyde is tricky,
and in any case, the circulating levels would be below the current limit of
detection for most of the methods used.
That is the current explanation for the low levels of methanol in plasma
after aspartame loading: they are zero, using most of the methods available
for methanol, since the expected levels are currently below the limit of
detection...

In addition, it is not logical to expect to find measurable levels of
formaldehyde in a medium (blood) containing a huge amount of protein.
Formaldehyde reacts immediately with proteins because it is highly reactive:
that is the reason why we have found it in cell protein and DNA.
It is absurd to expect it to forfeit binding with cell proteins and go all
the way into the bloodstream!
Remember that formaldehyde is used to preserve corpses precisely because it
binds protein (including those of putrefactive bacteria) and prevents its
degradation.

The "alternative" point expressed by Tephly, suggesting that aspartame
methanol-label goes all the way into formic acid and the C1 pathway was
thoroughly refuted by us, using experimental data.
There was no labelled methionine nor thymine in protein and DNA respectively
in the rat protein we recovered from rats treated with aspartame.
This means--unequivocally-- that the label present in DNA and protein
adducts was NOT incorporated into amino acids or nucleic acid bases.

The only explanation for our data was that the label was in the form of
formaldehyde adducts.

If this explanation does not satisfy other scientists, they are free to
repeat the experiment and show where we went wrong, or to probe and prove
experimentally their hypotheses. Otherwise, our results stand unchecked
and, consequently, should be deemed true.

I hope that this information will help any attentive reader understand why
we have left for good this field of study.

Best regards.
------------------------------
Prof. Dr. Mari* Alemany
Grup de Recerca Nitrogen-Obesitat
Departament de Nutrició i Bromatologia
Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona
Av. Diagonal, 645; 08028 Barcelona Espanya/España/Spain
tel. +34 93 403 4606; fax: +34 93 403 7064; E-mail: alemany@bio.ub.es

Life Sci 1999; 65(13): PL157-60. [ letter, usually not peer reviewed ]
Comments on the purported generation of formaldehyde and adduct
formation from the sweetener aspartame.

Tephly TR Thomas R. Tephly 319-335-7979 thomas-tephly@uiowa.edu
ttephly@blue.weeg.uiowa.edu Department of Pharmacology
The University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA.

A recent paper by Trocho et al. (1) describes experiments meant to show that
formaldehyde adducts are formed when rats are administered the sweetener
aspartame.
These authors assume that the methanol carbon of aspartame generates
formaldehyde which then forms adducts with protein, DNA, and RNA.
Doses employed range widely.
In this letter, studies which have been published previously and which were
not cited by these authors are reviewed in order to put into perspective the
disposition of methanol and formaldehyde in monkeys and humans, species
relevant to the toxicity of methanol and its toxic metabolite, formic acid.
PMID: 10503962, UI: 99431287

[ A number of pro-aspartame studies by Tephly and associates, invariably
funded by the aspartame industry (Monsanto, NutraSweet) are criticized in
detail at:

http://www.HolisticMed.com/aspartame mgold@holisticmed.com
Aspartame Toxicity Information Center Mark D. Gold
12 East Side Drive #2-18 Concord, NH 03301 603-225-2100
http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/abuse/methanol.html
"Scientific Abuse in Aspartame Research"

Gold points out that industry methanol assays were too insensitive to
properly measure blood methanol levels. ]

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1016
President Bush & formaldehyde (aspartame) toxicity: Ramazzini Foundation
carcinogenicity results Dec 2002: Soffritti: Murray 2003.08.03 rmforall

p. 88 "The sweetening agent aspartame hydrolyzes in the gastrointestinal
tract to become free methyl alcohol, which is metabolized in the liver
to formaldehyde, formic acid, and CO2. (11)"
Medinsky MA & Dorman DC. 1994; Assessing risks of low-level
methanol exposure. CIIT Act. 14: 1-7.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 982: 87-105.
Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of
formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in rats.
Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Lambertin L, Lauriola M, Padovani M, Maltoni C.
Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for Oncology and
Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. crcfr@tin.it

Formaldehyde was administered for 104 weeks in drinking water supplied
ad libitum at concentrations of 1500, 1000, 500, 100, 50, 10, or 0 mg/L
to groups of 50 male and 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats beginning at
seven weeks of age.
Control animals (100 males and 100 females) received tap water only.
Acetaldehyde was administered to 50 male and 50 female Sprague-Dawley
rats beginning at six weeks of age at concentrations of 2,500, 1,500,
500, 250, 50, or 0 mg/L.
Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death.
Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to produce an increase in total
malignant tumors in the treated groups and showed specific carcinogenic
effects on various organs and tissues. PMID: 12562630

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 982: 46-69.

Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of
methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol in rats.
Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Cevolani D, Guarino M, Padovani M, Maltoni C.
Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for Oncology and
Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. crcfr@tin.it

Methyl alcohol was administered in drinking water supplied ad libitum at
doses of 20,000, 5,000, 500, or 0 ppm to groups of male and female
Sprague-Dawley rats 8 weeks old at the start of the experiment.
Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death.
Ethyl alcohol was administered by ingestion in drinking water at a
concentration of 10% or 0% supplied ad libitum to groups of male and
female Sprague-Dawley rats; breeders and offspring were included in the
experiment.
Treatment started at 39 weeks of age (breeders), 7 days before mating,
or from embryo life (offspring) and lasted until their spontaneous death.
Under tested experimental conditions, methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol
were demonstrated to be carcinogenic for various organs and tissues.
They must also be considered multipotential carcinogenic agents.
In addition to causing other tumors, ethyl alcohol induced malignant
tumors of the oral cavity, tongue, and lips.
These sites have been shown to be target organs in man by epidemiologic
studies. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 12562628

Surely the authors deliberately emphasized that aspartame is well-known
to be a source of formaldehyde, which is an extremely potent, cumulative
toxin, with complex, multiple effects on all tissues and organs.

This is even more significant, considering that they have already tested
aspartame, but not yet released the results:

p. 29-32 Table 1: The Ramazzinni Foundation Cancer Program
Project of [200] Long-Term Carcinogenicity Bioassays: Agents Studied

No. No. of Bioassays Species No. Route of Exposure
108. "Coca-Cola" 4 Rat 1,999 Ingestion, Transplantal Route
109. "Pepsi-Cola" 1 Rat 400 Ingestion
110. Sucrose 1 Rat 400 Ingestion
111. Caffeine 1 Rat 800 Ingestion
112. Aspartame 1 Rat 1,800 Ingestion

http://members.nyas.org/events/conference/conf_02_0429.html
Soffritti said that Coca-Cola showed no carcinogenicity.

It may be time to disclose these important aspartame results.

Finally, an intripid and much published team in Japan has found DNA damage
in 8 tissues from single non-lethal doses of aspartame (near-significant
high levels of DNA damage in 5 tissues) and many other additives in groups
of just 4 mice:

Mutat Res 2002 Aug 26; 519(1-2): 103-19
The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food
additives.
Sasaki YF, Kawaguchi S, Kamaya A, Oh****a M, Kabasawa K, Iwama K,
Taniguchi K, Tsuda S.
Laboratory of Genotoxicity, Faculty of Chemical and Biological
Engineering, Hachinohe National College of Technology,
Tamonoki Uwanotai 16-1, Aomori 039-1192, Japan.
yfsasaki-c@hachinohe-ct.ac.jp ; s.tsuda@iwate-u.ac.jp

We determined the genotoxicity of 39 chemicals currently in use as food
additives.
They fell into six categories-dyes, color fixatives and
preservatives, preservatives, antioxidants, fungicides, and sweeteners.

We tested groups of four male ddY mice once orally with each additive at
up to 0.5xLD(50) or the limit dose (2000 mg/kg) and performed the comet
assay on the glandular stomach, colon, liver, kidney, urinary bladder, lung,
brain, and bone marrow 3 and 24 h after treatment.

Of all the additives, dyes were the most genotoxic.
Amaranth, Allura Red, New Coccine, Tartrazine, Erythrosine, Phloxine, and
Rose Bengal induced dose-related DNA damage in the glandular stomach, colon,
and/or urinary bladder.
All seven dyes induced DNA damage in the gastrointestinal organs at a low
dose (10 or 100 mg/kg).

Among them, Amaranth, Allura Red, New Coccine, and Tartrazine induced
DNA damage in the colon at close to the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs).

Two antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated
hydroxytoluene (BHT)), three fungicides (biphenyl, sodium
o-phenylphenol, and thiabendazole), and four sweeteners (sodium
cyclamate, saccharin, sodium saccharin, and sucralose) also induced DNA
damage in gastrointestinal organs.

Based on these results, we believe that more extensive assessment of
food additives in current use is warranted. PMID: 12160896

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/934
24 recent formaldehyde toxicity [Comet assay] reports:
Murray 2002.12.31 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/935
Comet assay finds DNA damage from sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin in
mice: Sasaki YF & Tsuda S Aug 2002: Murray 2003.01.01 rmforall
[ Also borderline evidence, in this pilot study of 39 food additives,
using test groups of 4 mice, for DNA damage from for stomach, colon,
liver, bladder, and lung 3 hr after oral dose of 2000 mg/kg aspartame--
a very high dose. Methanol is the only component of aspartame that can lead
to DNA damage. ]

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/961
genotoxins, Comet assay in mice: Ace-K, stevia fine; aspartame poor;
sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin bad: Y.F. Sasaki Aug 2002:
Murray 2003.01.27 rmforall [A detailed look at the data] ]

J Toxicol Sci. 2002 Dec; 27 Suppl 1: 1-8.
[Genotoxicity studies of stevia extract and steviol by the comet assay]
[Article in Japanese]
Sekihashi K, Saitoh H, Sasaki Y. yfsasaki-c@hachinohe-ct.ac.jp
Safety Research Institute for Chemical Compounds Co., Ltd., 363-24 Shin-ei,
Kiyota-ku, Sapporo 004-0839, Japan.

The genotoxicity of steviol, a metabolite of stevia extract, was evaluated
for its genotoxic potential using the comet assay.
In an in vitro study, steviol at 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 micrograms/ml did
not damage the nuclear DNA of TK6 and WTK1 cells in the presence and absence
of S9 mix.
In vivo studies of steviol were conducted by two independent organizations.
Mice were sacrificed 3 and 24 hr after one oral administration of steviol at
250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg.
DNA damage in multiple mouse organs was measured by the comet assay as
modified by us.
After oral treatment, stomach, colon, liver, kidney and testis DNA were not
damaged.
The in vivo genotoxicity of stevia extract was also evaluated for its
genotoxic potential using the comet assay.
Mice were sacrificed 3 and 24 hr after oral administration of stevia extract
at 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg.
Stomach, colon and liver DNA were not damaged.
As all studies showed negative responses, stevia extract and steviol are
concluded to not have DNA-damaging activity in cultured cells and mouse
organs. PMID: 12533916

rmforall
09-25-2004, 12:19 AM
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1018
aspartame toxicity coverup increases danger of corporate meltdown:
Michael C. Carakostas of Coca-Cola: Murray 2003.08.11 rmforall
http://www.isrtp.org/new_members/members1.htm
The International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Carakostas, Michael C., DVM, PhD Director/Scientific & Regulatory
Affairs The Coca-Cola Company PO Drawer 1734 Atlanta, GA 30301
T. 404/676-4234 F. 404/676-7166 E-mail: mcarakostas@na.ko.com
http://www2.coca-cola.com/ourcompany/columns_aspartame.html [photo]
Aspartame: The world agrees it's safe By Michael Carakostas, DVM, PhD
Director, Scientific and Regulatory Affairs, Coca-Cola

It is commendable that Carakostas mentions the core problem, albeit
disparagingly, and overlaid with multiple untruths: "During digestion,
aspartame yields a very small amount of methanol-- as do many other food
substances. The body converts this methanol to formaldehyde, which is
instantly converted to formate. Formate is quickly eliminated as carbon
dioxide and water."

Carakostas deceptively make claims, unsupported by research, that the amount
of methanol from aspartame is "very small", that many foods release as much,
and that little of the inevitable formaldehyde or formic acid toxic products
accumulate in body tissues. This executive, with a PhD in veterinary
science, is deceiving people about very serious multiple toxicities.

Thus, there is evidence here cited from 1973 to 2004 that research and
reviews by immense vested interests about aspartame must be scrutinized with
the greatest skepticism. The greatest Internet myth about aspartame is
this: "Aspartame is the most thoroughly tested food additive in history."

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/857
www.dorway.com: (http://www.dorway.com:) original documents and long reviews of flaws in
aspartame toxicity research: Murray 2002.07.31 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/858
Samuels: Strong: Roberts: Gold: flaws in double-blind studies re
aspartame and MSG toxicity: Murray 2002.08.01 rmforall

"Survey of aspartame studies: correlation of outcome and funding
sources," 1998, unpublished: http://www.dorway.com/peerrev.html
Walton found 166 separate published studies in the peer reviewed
medical literature, which had relevance for questions of human safety.
The 74 studies funded by industry all (100%) attested to aspartame's
safety, whereas of the 92 non-industry funded studies, 84 (91%)
identified a problem. Six of the seven non-industry funded studies
that were favorable to aspartame safety were from the FDA, which
has a public record that shows a strong pro-industry bias.
Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern Ohio
Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown,
OH 44501, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240 Youngstown,
OH 44501 330-740-3621 rwalton193@aol.com
http://www.neoucom.edu/DEPTS/Psychiatry/walton.htm

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/622
Gold: Koehler: Walton: Van Den Eeden: Leon:
aspartame toxicity: Murray 2001.06.04 rmforall four double-blind studies

Headache 1988 Feb; 28(1): 10-4
The effect of aspartame on migraine headache.
Koehler SM, Glaros A PMID: 3277925, UI: 88138777
Shirley M. Koehler, Ph.D. Department of Psychology
Brooks Rehabilitation Hospital
3599 University Boulevard, South Jacksonville, Florida 32216
(904) 858-7650 shirley.koehler@brookshealth.org
Alan Glaros glarosa@umkc.edu 816-235-2074

They conducted a double-blind study of patients, ages 18-55, who had
a medical diagnosis of classical migraines (normally having 1-3
migraines in 4-weeks), who were not on medications (other than
analgesics), and who suspected that aspartame had a negative effect on
their migraine headaches. The subjects were given 1200 mg daily,
aspartame or placebo, for four weeks, about 17 mg/kg. The placebo
group had no increase in headaches. Approximately half of the subjects
(5 of 11) who took aspartame had a large, statistically significant
(p = 0.02), increase in migraine headache frequency, but not in
intensity or duration, compared to baseline or placebo. Only 11 of
25 subjects completed the program: 8 dropped out, 4 began new
medications, 2 had incomplete records. They were at home.
Since 1/3 of the subjects dropped out, they may have been choosing
to avoid headaches-- were they unpaid? To achieve statistical
signifance with only 11 subjects hints that the incidence rate from
aspartame is very high, about 1/2, for migraine cases who believe
that they are hurt by aspartame.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1077
eight depressed people react strongly to aspartame, Prof. Ralph G. Walton,
MD, 1993 double-blind study, full text: Murray 2004.04.26 rmforall

Walton, RG, "Adverse reactions to aspartame: double-blind challenge in
patients from a vulnerable population," 1993, with Robert Hudak and
Ruth J. Green-Waite, Biological Psychiatry, 34 (1), 13-17.
Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern Ohio
Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown,
OH 44501, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240 Youngstown,
OH 44501 330-740-3621 rwalton193@aol.com
http://www.neoucom.edu/DEPTS/Psychiatry/walton.htm

Eight depressed patients, ages 24-60, and five non-depressed controls,
ages 24-56, employed at the hospital, were given for 7 days either
aspartame or a placebo, and then after a 3 day break, given the
opposite. Each got 2100 mg aspartame daily, 30 mg/kg bodyweight,
equal to 10-12 cans of diet soda daily, about a gallon. Despite the
very small number of subjects, the results were dramatic and
statistically significant. The eight depressed patients reported with
aspartame, compared to placebo, much higher levels of nervousness,
trouble remembering, nausea, depression, temper, and malaise. (For each
symptom, p<0.01) The five normals did not report strong enough
differences between aspartame and placebo to be significant.
Initially, the study was to be on a group of 40, but was halted by the
Institutional Review Board because of severe reactions among 3 of the
depressed patients.

Again, statistical significance with only 8 depressed patients:
"In this study, patients most often began to report significant
symptoms after day 2 or 3." The incidence rate is very high,
indeed, about 1/3. The most common symptoms are entirely typical
of thousands of case histories.

Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, T.D. Koepsell, W.T. Longstreth, Jr,
G. van Belle, J.R. Daling, B. McKnight, "Aspartame ingestion and
headaches: a randomized crossover trial," 1994, Neurology, 44, 1787-93
Steven K. Van Den Eeden,PhD 550-450-2202 skv@dor.kaiser.org
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program
3505 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94611-5714
http://www.dor.kaiser.org/dorhtml/investigators/Stephen_Van_Den_Eeden.html

In their introduction, they comment:

"In addition, the FDA had received over 5,000 complaints as of July,
1991 in a passive surveillance system to monitor adverse side effects.
(17) Neurologic problems constitute the primary complaints in these
and several other case series, with headaches accounting for
18 to 45 %,depending on the case series reported. (17-19)"

Subjects, ages 18-57, were recruited who believed they got headaches
from aspartame, but were otherwise mentally and physically healthy.
They were paid $ 15 total, and were at home. Of the 44 subjects, 32
contributed data to the 38-day trials: a week of inert placebo, a week
of either aspartame or placebo, followed by a week of the opposite, and
then this two-week cycle repeated. The daily dose was about 30 mg/kg.
"The proportion of days subjects reported having a headache was
higher during aspartame treatment compared with placebo treatment
(aspartame = 0.33, placebo = 0.24; p = 0.04) (table 5)".
Of the 12 subjects not included in the data, 7 reported adverse
symptoms before withdrawing.

Again, statistical significance with a moderate number of healthy
subjects, willing to be recruited by a newspaper ad, who believed
aspartame hurt them. The number of headaches for each subject
for each treatment week are given: it appears that 4 subjects
had the strongest increase in headaches from the run-in week
or placebo week to their first week on aspartame, jumping from 0 to 5,
1 to 6, 1 to 4, 0 to 5 headaches per week. So, about 4 of the 44
healthy people recruited for the study, who believed aspartame hurt
them, had a stong increase in headaches from the first week of daily
asparame exposure, while 7 reported adverse symptoms before leaving,
a total of 11 out of 44, an incidence ratio of 1/4.

This is sky high, if we consider that, if the incidence ratio for the
about two hundred million users in the USA is 1 of 100, that is 2
million cases. It is plausible that the incidence ratio lies between 1
and 10 out of 100 for continuous daily exposure. These three flames
should have set off alarm bells, with extensive follow-up studies and
much more careful study of thousands of case histories. But these
little flares were adroitly smothered by thick blankets of industry
funded fluff:

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/623
Simmons: Gold: Schiffman: Spiers:
aspartame toxicity: Murray 2001.06.04 rmforall two double-blind studies

http://www.dorway.com/tldaddic.html 5-page review
Roberts HJ Aspartame (NutraSweet) addiction.
Townsend Letter 2000 Jan; HJRobertsMD@aol.com
http://www.sunsentpress.com/ sunsentpress@aol.com
Sunshine Sentinel Press P.O.Box 17799 West Palm Beach, FL 33416
800-814-9800 561-588-7628 561-547-8008 fax

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/669
1038-page medical text "Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic"
published May 30 2001 $ 60.00 postpaid data from 1200 cases
available at http://www.amazon.com
over 600 references from standard medical research

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/790
Moseley: review Roberts "Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic":
Murray 2002.02.07 rmforall

Roberts, Hyman J., 1924- ,
Useful insights for diagnosis, treatment and public heath: an updated
anthology of original research, 2002, 798 pages,
aspartame disease, pages 627-685, 778-780

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/859
Roberts: the life work of a brilliant clinician: aspartame toxicity:
Murray 2002.08.02 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1070
critique of aspartame review, French Food Safety Agency AFSSA 2002.05.07
aspartamgb.pdf (18 pages, in English), Martin Hirsch:
Murray 2004.04.13

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/957
safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF:
Murray 2003.01.12 rmforall EU Scientific Committee on Food, a whitewash

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1045
http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/scf2002-response.htm
Mark Gold exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific
Committee on Food re aspartame ( 2002.12.04 ): 59 pages, 230 references

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/989 On 2003.04.10
the European Union Parliament voted 440 to 20 to approve sucralose,
limit cyclamates & reevaluate aspartame & stevia: Murray 2003.04.12 rmforall
There is an astonishing amount of positive research about stevia, banned in
the EU, and not allowed to be claimed as a sweetener in the USA:

http://www.eatright.org/
J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Feb; 104(2): 255-75.
Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and
nonnutritive sweeteners. American Dietetic Association.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1068
critique of aspartame review by American Dietetic Association Feb 2004,
Valerie B. Duffy & Madeleine J. Sigman-Grant: Murray 2004.05.14 rmforall

rmforall
09-25-2004, 12:23 AM
http://www.dorway.com ( David O. Rietz, died 2003 ) over 12,000 print
pages Mission-Possible-USA Betty Martini 770-242-2599
Bettym19@mindspring.com http://www.dorway.com/asprlink.html many links
http://www.dorway.com/nslawsuit.txt Jeff Martin, Attorney
http://www.dorway.com/doctors.txt
What many informed doctors are saying/have said about aspartame

Mary Nash Stoddard
Toxicology Sourcebook: "Deadly Deception Story of Aspartame"
Aspartame Consumer Safety Network and Pilot Hotline [since 1987]
PO Box 780634 Dallas TX 75378-0634
phone: 214.387.4001 marystod@airmail.net http://www.aspartamesafety.com

http://www.sweetpoison.com/
http://www.sweetpoison.com/food-additives-to-avoid.html
Dr. Janet Starr Hull, PhD, CN jshull@sweetpoison.com

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/805
Ive: UK Daily Mirror Magazine: aspartame toxicity:
Murray 2002.02.18 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1016
President Bush & formaldehyde (aspartame) toxicity: Ramazzini Foundation
carcinogenicity results Dec 2002: Soffritti: Murray 2003.08.03 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/874
re "dry drunk": Bisbort: danger to President Bush from aspartame toxicity:
Murray: 2002.02.24 2002.09.29 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1065
politicians and celebrities hooked on diet sodas (aspartame):
Murray 2004.03.24 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1101
John Edwards gives up Diet Coke: The Cult of Diet Coke, Eric Gillin:
Murray 2004.07.12 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1102
John Edwards still drinks Diet Coke (aspartame): TIME Europe July 19 issue:
Murray 2004.07.12 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/876
hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) in George and Barbara Bush, 1991--
aspartame toxicity? Roberts 1997: Murray 2002.10.09 rmforall

http://www.dorway.com/upipart1.txt
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/262
aspartame expose 96K Oct 1987 Part 1/3: Gregory Gordon, UPI reporter:
Murray 2000.07.10 rmforall

http://www.dorway.com/enclosur.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/53
aspartame history Part 1/4 1964-1976: Gold: Murray 1999.11.06 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/928
revolving door, Monsanto, FDA, EPA: NGIN: Murray 2002.12.23 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/841
RTM: Merisant Co., MSD Capital, Dell Computer Corp., NutraSweet Co.,
JW Childs Assc.: aspartame-neotame toxicity 2002.07.10 rmforall

http://google.com gives 247,000 websites for "aspartame" , with the top
8 of 10 listings being anti-aspartame, while
http://groups.google.com finds on 700 MB of posts from 20 years of
Usenet groups, 92,300 posts, the top 10 being anti-aspartame.
http://news.google.com 33 recent aspartame items from 4500 sources.
http://www.AllTheWeb.com gives 43,913, the top 8 of 10 anti.
http://teoma.com/index.asp gives 78,200 websites, top 8 of 10 anti.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed lists 767 aspartame items.

Many scientific studies and case histories report: * headaches * many body
and joint pains (or burning, tingling, tremors, twitching, spasms, cramps,
stiffness, numbness, difficulty swallowing) * fever, fatigue, swollen
glands * "mind fog", "feel unreal", poor memory, confusion, anxiety,
irritability, depression, mania, insomnia, dizziness, slurred speech, sexual
problems, poor vision, hearing (deafness, tinnitus), or taste * red face,
itching, rashes, allergic dermatitis, hair loss, burning eyes or throat, dry
eyes or mouth, mouth sores, burning tongue * obesity, bloating, edema,
anorexia, poor appetite or excessive hunger or thirst * breathing
problems, shortness of breath * nausea, diarrhea or constipation * coldness
* sweating * racing heart, low or high blood pressure, erratic blood sugar
levels * hypothryroidism or hyperthyroidism * seizures * birth defects
* brain cancers * addiction * aggrivates diabetes, autism, allergies,
lupus, ADHD, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple chemical
sensitivity, multiple sclerosis, pseudotumor cerebri and interstitial
cystitis (bladder pain).
************************************************** *********

rmforall
09-25-2004, 12:26 AM
http://www.dorway.com/barua.html
Dr. J. Barua (ophthalmic surgeon), Dr. Arun Bal (surgeon)
Emerging facts about aspartame.
Journal Of The Diabetic Association Of India 1995; 35 (4):
(79 references) barua@giasbm01.vsnl.net.in
"...the total amount of methanol absorbed will be approximately 10% of
aspartame ingested. An EPA assessment of methanol states that methanol, 'is
considered a cumulative poison due to the low rate of excretion once it is
absorbed. The absorbed methanol is then slowly converted to
formaldehyde...'"
"Reaction of formaldehyde with DNA has been observed, by spectrophotometry
and electron microscopy, to result in irreversible denaturation."
"DKP [from aspartame] has been implicated in the occurence of brain
tumors."
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http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/939
aspartame (aspartic acid, phenylalanine) binding to DNA:
Karikas July 1998: Murray 2003.01.05 rmforall
Karikas GA, Schulpis KH, Reclos GJ, Kokotos G
Measurement of molecular interaction of aspartame and
its metabolites with DNA. Clin Biochem 1998 Jul; 31(5): 405-7.
Dept. of Chemistry, University of Athens, Greece
http://www.chem.uoa.gr gkokotos@atlas.uoa.gr
K.H. Schulpis inchildh@otenet.gr ; G.J. Reclos reklos@otenet.gr

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/960
aspartame & MSG: possible role in autoimmune hepatitis:
Prandota Jan 2003: Murray 2003.01.15 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/938
aspartame harms mice brain cells: Hetle & Eltervaag: 2001 thesis
abstract: Sonnewald 1995 study, full text: Murray 2003.01.05 rmforall

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/346
WebMD: Barclay: Barth:
survey shows aspartame hurts memory in students 2000.11.09
Timothy M. Barth Department of Psychology t.barth@tcu.edu
Texas Christian University TCU Box 298920 Fort Worth, TX 76129
Chairman, Physiological Psychology 817-921-7410

Konen, J.A., T.L. Sia, M. Czuchry, P.M. Stuntz, G.S. Bahr, T.M. Barth.,
D.F. Dansereau, 2000. "Perceived Memory Impairment in Aspartame
Users, "Presented at the Society for Neuroscience 30th Annual Meeting,
November 6, 2000.

Orange, C., 1998. "Effects of Aspartame on College Student Memory and
Learning," College Student Journal; 32(1): 87-92. [ Carolyn Orange ]

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/760
Kovatsi L, Tsouggas M
The effect of oral aspartame administration on the
balance of magnesium in the rat.
Magnes Res 2001 Sep;14(3): 189-94.
Laboratory of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece kovatsi@med.auth.gr

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/943
aspartame, cell phones, brain cancer July 1999 Hardell:
Murray 2003.01.09 rmforall
http://www.medscape.com/MedGenMed/braintumors
Lennart Hardell, M.D., PhD, in 1999 reported in Sweden that both
cell phone use and heavy aspartame use correlate with increased
brain cancers lennart.hardell@orebroll.se +46 19 602 15 46

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/31
Wurtman: aspartame & seizures 1985.11.09: Murray 1999.10.30
Wurtman RJ Aspartame: possible effect on seizure susceptibility.
Lancet 1985 Nov 9; 2(8463): 1060.
Richard J. Wurtman, Ph.D. dick@mit.edu 617-253-3091
Professor of Neuroscience
Prof. of Health Sciences and Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technlogy Cambridge, Mass. 02139

http://www.truthinlabeling.org/ Truth in Labeling Campaign [MSG]
Adrienne Samuels, PhD The toxicity/safety of processed
free glutamic acid (MSG): a study in suppression of information.
Accountability in Research 1999; 6: 259-310. 52-page review
P.O. Box 2532 Darien, Illinois 60561
858-481-9333 adandjack@aol.com

Russell L. Blaylock, MD 601-982-1175 Madison, Mississippi
"Excitotoxins: The Taste that Kills", 1977, 298 p., 493 references.
"Health and Nutrition Secrets that can save your life", 2002, 459 p.,
558 + 30 references, $ 30 http://www.russellblaylockmd.com/

George R. Schwartz, MD "In Bad Taste: The MSG Syndrome", 1988
http://www.healthpress.com/ goodbooks@healthpress.com
PO Box 37470 Albuquerque, NM 87176 505-888-1394
Kathleen Frazier, Publisher
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http://www.readthelabel.org.uk/ Additives Survivors' Network (UK)
Geoff Brewer geoffbrewer@eurobell.co.uk
http://www.chem.ox.ac.uk/mom/aspartame/aspartame.html
http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2000/srogers/sarah.html
Sarah Rogers sr8442@bristol.ac.uk
http://www.react.ie/Health/Nutrition/Aspartame.htm Ireland
http://members.tripod.com/~mission_possible/scotland_branch.html
http://www.aspartame.ca/indexa.html John T. Linnell admin@aspartame.ca
http://www.cybernaute.com/earthconcert2000/AspartaMalcache.htm
http://www.fedupwithfoodadditives.info/ Australia FAILSAFE diet
http://www.bradymax.com/nzaa/ New Zealand
http://www.reseauproteus.net/therapies/nutritio/aspartame.htm France
http://ww2.grn.es/avalls/aspa1.htm Spain
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/Falls/8669/ Brazil
http://www.phd.com.br/aspartame.htm
http://hem.passagen.se/mission.possible.sweden/
http://home.online.no/~dusan/foods/aspartame.html Norway
http://www.ostara.org/aspartam/#menue Germany
http://www.aspartaam.nl/info/product.html Holland, in Dutch
http://www.laleva.org/ archimede@laleva.cc Italy 9 languages
http://www.laleva.cc/alimenti/alimenti.html aspartame vs stevia 4.17.03
http://users.westnet.gr/~cgian/aspartame.htm Greece
http://www.cseindia.org/html/cola-indepth/index.htm India
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http://www.vegsource.com extensive vegan information

htttp://www.drmcdougall.com practical, delicious healthy diet guidance

http://www.vegsource.com/articles/kradjian_milk.htm
Robert Kradjian MD Discusses Milk

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/971
Joel Fuhrman critique of Atkins diet in "Eat To Live":
Murray 2003.03.01 rmforall

http://www.hyp.ac.uk/cash/index.htm
Consensus Action on Salt and Health

Substitute stevia (at health food stores).
Avoid all products with aspartame and MSG.
Gradually reduce alcohol, sugar, caffeine (coffee, cocoa, and teas), meat,
fish, eggs, milk, butter, and cheese, hydrogenated oils, trans fats,
food additives and colors, fluoride, city water, salt and sodium.
Enjoy organic rice, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, beans, nuts, almond
butter, garlic, tumeric, with modest use of soy products and sprouted grain
breads, flax seed and olive oils, vitamins and minerals, 4-8 1,000 mg fish
oil capsules, and fill your jugs with deionized water.
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rmforall
09-25-2004, 01:04 AM
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http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1114
review of sweeteners 2004, Weihrauch MR, Diehl V: formaldehyde from 11%
methanol component of aspartame, methanol in dark wines and liquors,
fermentation of fruits in colon, also smoke, new buildings, furniture,
drapes, carpets, personal products: available database from Harvard Nurses'
Health Study II of 91,249 women in 1991-1999: Murray 2004.09.18 rmforall

Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@comcast.net
1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 USA 505-501-2298

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/messages
131 members, 1,115 posts in a public searchable archive

2004.09.17 This review by an unqualified, earnest medical layman, aims at
providing simple information from recent mainstream research on the toxicity
of formaldehyde. Here are a few summary remarks, backed up by the body of
this post.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1094
the 11% methanol component of aspartame becomes formaldehyde, now ruled a
carcinogen by WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer: Murray
2004.06.16 rmforall

Methanol toxicity results from the inevitable conversion within hours of
much of it into formaldehyde and then formic acid, both potent, cumulative
toxins that affect every tissue, and that in long-term chronic exposure are
a major cause of hypersensitivity to formaldehyde and other chemicals.

About the same amount of methanol exists as an impurity, about one part in
ten thousand, in dark wines and liquors, stated by experts to be the major
cause of the infamous "morning after" hangover: "thirst, headache, fatigue,
nausea, sweating, tremor, remorse, and anxiety that hangover sufferers
report...." Also, dizziness is common, along with vision and eye problems,
irritability, impaired memory, "brain fog", aching joints and body pains,
flushed skin.

Jones AW (1987) found next-morning hangover from red wine with
100 to 150 mg methanol
(9.5% w/v ethanol; 100 mg/l methanol = 0.01%, one part in ten thousand).

Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol -- 1,120 mg aspartame in 2 L diet soda,
almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol) -- the same
amount that produces hangover from red wine.

"Between a quarter and a half of drinkers claim not to experience hangover
symptoms despite having been intoxicated. (three citations)" This
indicates a remarkable range of individual vulnerability to formaldehyde and
formic acid exposure.

Other strong formaldehyde sources are tobacco and wood smoke, and the
particleboard and new furniture, carpet, and drapes especially concentrated
in mobile homes. Many personal care products contain formaldehyde; for
instance, leather shoes can cause foot dermatitis.

Similar levels of methanol, and its inevitable products in the human body,
formaldehyde and formic acid, can also ensue from fermentation of fruit
pectins in the colon.

The wide range of individual variability and the multitude of long-term,
low-level sources renders statistical studies difficult. It is commonsense
to consider seriously the multitudes of case reports of long-term heavy
users who become aspartame reactors, and to focus research on the actual
complex toxic biochemistry for long-term heavy exposure in vulnerable
people.

An available huge database exists in the Harvard Nurses' Health Study II.
The diabetes analysis included 91,249 women free of diabetes and other major
chronic diseases at baseline in 1991.
The weight change analysis included 51,603 women for whom complete dietary
information and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999.

There were three questions on diet soft drinks
("low-calorie cola with caffeine,"
"low-calorie caffeine-free cola,"
and "other low-calorie beverages").

We summed the intake of single items to create a total of sugar-sweetened
soft drink, diet soft drink, and fruit juice consumption.

The 9 possible responses, ranging from "never" to "6 or more times per day,"
were aggregated into 4 categories
(<1 drink per month, 1-4 drinks per month, 2-6 drinks per week, and 1 drink
per day).

Similar questionnaires were used to collect dietary information in 1995 and
1999.

The data for "6 or more times per day", rather than being averaged out with
lower levels of use, should be studied for correlations with heavy alcohol
use, high use of fruit, tobacco and wood smoke, mobile homes, other
formaldehyde sources, MSG, carbon monoxide, VOCs, pesticides, heavy metals,
and the many typical symptoms for hangovers and aspartame reactors:
headaches, mental illnesses, seizures, dementia, accidents, crimes, suicide,
infertility, miscarriages, birth defects, autism, asthma, sudden infant
death syndrome, diabetes, cerebral palsy, allergies, Multiple Chemical
Sensitivity, Multiple Sclerosis, Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,
Attention Deficit Disorder, arthritis, dermatitis, thyroid diseases, liver
diseases, obesity, heart diseases, stroke, cancers, vision problems,
addictions, as well as any protective effects of folic acid, which
facilitates the elimination of formaldehyde.

This database might well be fully available and immediately searchable to
test these associations.

The automated Comet assay, fast, sensitive, and inexpensive, is a standard
for assessment of DNA damage in any stored blood and tissue samples:

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/935
Comet assay finds DNA damage from sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin in
mice: Sasaki YF & Tsuda S Aug 2002: Murray 2003.01.01 rmforall
[ Also borderline evidence, in this pilot study of 39 food additives,
using test groups of 4 mice, for DNA damage from for stomach, colon,
liver, bladder, and lung 3 hr after oral dose of 2000 mg/kg aspartame--
a very high dose. Methanol is the only component of aspartame that can lead
to DNA damage. ]
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