View Full Version : aspartame & quinoline yellow, MSG & brilliant blue harms nerve cells

12-22-2005, 12:24 AM
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combining aspartame and quinoline yellow, or MSG and brilliant blue,
harms nerve cells, eminent C. Vyvyan Howard et al, 2005
education.guardian.co.uk, Felicity Lawrence: Murray 2005.12.21


printable version

Combining food additives may be harmful, say researchers
* Aspartame and artificial colourings investigated
* Mice nerve cells stopped growing in experiments

Felicity Lawrence, consumer affairs correspondent
Wednesday December 21, 2005


New research on common food additives, including the controversial
sweetener aspartame and food colourings, suggests they may interact
to interfere with the development of the nervous system.

Researchers at the University of Liverpool examined the toxic effects
on nerve cells in the laboratory of using a combination of four common
food additives -- aspartame, monosodium glutamate (MSG)
and the artificial colourings brilliant blue and quinoline yellow.
The findings of their two-year study were published last week
in the journal Toxicological Sciences.

The Liverpool team reported that when mouse nerve cells were
exposed to MSG and brilliant blue
or aspartame and quinoline yellow in laboratory conditions,
combined in concentrations that theoretically reflect the compound
that enters the bloodstream after a typical children's snack and drink,
the additives stopped the nerve cells growing
and interfered with proper signalling systems.

The mixtures of the additives had a much more potent effect
on nerve cells than each additive on its own.

The study reported that the effect on cells could be up to
four times greater when brilliant blue and MSG were combined,
and up to seven times greater when quinoline yellow and aspartame
were combined, than when the additives were applied on their own.
"The results indicate that both combinations are potentially
more toxic than might be predicted from the sum of their individual
compounds," the researchers concluded.

The tests used are the same as those applied when testing
combinations of pesticides for toxicity.
"They are recognised as predictive of developmental outcomes
in humans," said Vyvyan Howard, a toxicopathologist
and expert in foetal development who led the study.
Exposure to food additives during a child's development
has been associated with behavioural problems
such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Additives are licensed for use one at a time,
but the study's authors believe that examining their effect
in combinations gives a more accurate picture of how
they are consumed in the modern diet.
"Although the use of single food additives is believed
to be relatively safe in terms of development of the nervous system,
their combined effects are unclear," Professor Howard said.
"We think there are signs that when you mix additives,
the effect might be worse."

The colours used in the research are synthetic dyes
certified as safe food additives in the EU.
However, brilliant blue (E133) has been banned
in several European countries in the past.
Quinoline yellow (E104) is banned in foods in Australia,
Norway and the US.
Previous research has shown that MSG (E621) and aspartic acid,
one of the breakdown compounds in aspartame (E951),
are neurotoxins, according to the authors of the study.

Brilliant blue is found in sweets, some processed peas,
some soft drinks and some confectionery, desserts and ices.

Quinoline yellow is found in some smoked haddock,
some confectionery and some pickles.

MSG, which is banned in foods for young children,
is found in some pasta with sauce products,
a large number of crisps, processed cheese, and prepared meals.

Aspartame is found in diet drinks, some sweets, desserts and medicines.

The Food Standards Agency said it would need further details
and clarification on the research before making a full assessment.
"All of the additives included in the study are permitted
for use in food under current EU legislation following a rigorous
safety assessment," it said in a statement.
The agency added it was funding research on the effects
of mixtures of colourings on children's behaviour
and kept the safety of additives under review.

Speaking for manufacturers, the Food and Drink Federation
said the additives in the study had all been approved as safe
by the EU's expert scientific committee.

The Aspartame Information Service,
which represents the sweetener industry, dismissed the research,
saying that it "did not provide any meaningful information"
because it exposed mouse cells in the laboratory to undigested
aspartame. "When we consume aspartame it is broken down
in the digestive system to common dietary components.
Aspartame has been in safe use for 25 years and has been
reviewed and approved by more than 130 countries," it said.

EducationGuardian.co.uk © Guardian Newspapers Limited 2005
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education weekly

Observer letters page
Letters from the readers of the Sunday paper (letters@observer.co.uk).
Make 'Letter to the Editor' your subject line.
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Dr C. Vyvyan Howard, editor of Nanotoxicology [ photo ]
[ C. V. Howard c.v.howard@liverpool.ac.uk ]

Nanotoxicology -March 2005 launch
Volume 1, 2005, quarterly publication
Print ISSN 1743-5390 Online ISSN 1743-5404

Nanotoxicology aims to address the emerging science behind
the understanding that as particles are made smaller so their
chemical properties change, and in doing so a potential risk is
posed to humans, animals, the environment and within biota.

The recently published (July 2004) UK government backed
report into nanotechnology has called for new regulations and
research into the as yet unknown effects of nanotechnology on
human health and this would appear to reflect the need for a publication
in this area.
The Journal is also particularly interested in methods of toxicity
minimisation, through coatings and other methods, in fields such as the
medical and therapeutic use of nano-particles in the treatment of disease.

Please visit www.nanotoxicology.net (http://www.nanotoxicology.net) for further information and a full set
of the aims and scope. Submissions are invited.

Vyvyan Howard is head of the Development Toxico-Pathology
Research Group within the Department of Human Anatomy and a senior
lecturer at the University of Liverpool.

The department's current research includes the effects of drugs,
environmental pollutants and tobacco smoke in a variety of developmental

Dr Howard is an experienced toxicopathologist with a particular interest
in the effects of toxic substances upon the fetus and the infant.

He has been involved in the description of two newly discovered pathological
syndromes and has also studied the effects of
organo-chlorine pollutants on highly exposed industrial workers.

Dr Howard is also Visiting Professor at the Centre for Molecular
Biosciences at the University of Ulster.

Dr Howard has been Author and Editor of several books, such as
Unbiased Stereology and Particulate Matter,
published by BIOS Scientific Publishers.

Dr Howard is a fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists and the
Royal Microscopical Society,
plus a member of the British Society of Toxicological Pathologists,
the International Society for Stereology,
the Working Group on Food Additives and Behaviour in Children,
the International Society of Doctors for the Environment
and the European Teratology Society.

He is the Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Board of the recently formed
charity the Cancer Prevention and Education Society.

He held the position of President of the Royal Microscopical Society
from 1995-1998 and President of the International Society for
Stereology from 1991-1995.

In 1989 he was awarded the Royal Microscopical Society's 150th
Anniversary Gold Medal for services to microscopy.

In May 2003, Dr Howard was appointed
to the Government's Advisory Committee on Pesticides.

Dr Howard has been an invited lecturer at the College of Europe in Bruges
and during his Presidency of the RMS,
held a place at the Parliamentary and Scientific Committee of Parliament.
He gave the main presentation, "Child Health and the Environment,"
at the 3rd European Conference on Health and the Environment,
on behalf of representatives of the World Health Organisation
and the European Environment Agency.

He has also written an article in Science in Parliament,
the official publication of the Parliamentary and Scientific Committee
and has been a personal guest of HRH Prince Charles during recent
debates concerning the field of nanotechnology.

He has supervised PhD projects, and has been directly involved in the
development and application of a number of novel microscopes and

He obtained a grant to purchase one of the first laser scanning
commercially available confocal microscopes.

Dr Howard's activities in the field of microscopy are evident from his
Editorship of the Journal of Microscopy
and subsequent Presidency of the Royal Microscopical Society.

Dr Howard has become a media spokesperson for his field, having
contributed to several television documentaries including World in Action
and Dispatches, and appearing on the Radio 4 Today Programme on
several occasions to discuss pollution topics.

Dr Howard has been the Chairman and grant holder of the Mersey
Diabetes in Pregnancy Research Group since 1990. This is currently the
world's biggest epidemiological study into the complications of diabetic
pregnancy and has funding to continue to collect data for 10 years.

He was involved in the development of a new series of 3-D measurement
techniques in microscopy, termed stereology,
and was subsequently invited to become Editor for
Stereology of the Journal of Microscopy.

He has organised and taught several international courses on these
techniques and published over 40 papers outlining original advances in
the theory and application of stereology. New methods of research
facilitated by these stereological techniques are now being requested by
drug licensing authorities (e.g. US FDA)
for the toxicological testing of new drugs.

Dr Howard has also specialised in 'single cell stereology'.
This is a body of techniques that require perfectly registered sections and
facilitate the unbiased estimation of the geometrical features of single
These latter techniques are quite new,
but appear to be of particular strength in the field of neurophysiology.
He has recently written the first full length book on the subject,
with Dr Matt Reed of Unilever Research Ltd,
entitled Unbiased Stereology,
and including a foreword by Professor Lewis Wolpert FRS.

To find out more about Vyvyan Howard and his work visit his Liverpool
University homepage.
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[ photo ] info@nanotox.com

Charles Vyvyan Howard, MB. ChB. PhD. FRCPath.

Professor of Bioimaging, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster
at Coleraine

Member Directing Board and President Elect of International Society of
Doctors for the Environment (ISDE)

Member of Board of Health Care Without Harm, Europe (HCWH)

Member ot the UK Governmant DEFRA Advisory Committee on Pesticides.....
[ more ]
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neurotoxic synergy of aspartame with Quinoline Yellow,
and L-glutamic acid with Brilliant Blue, in mouse cells,
Lau K, McLean WG, Williams DP, Howard CV, U. of Liverpool,
Toxicol Sci 2005.12.13: Murray

[ Rich Murray: This study by an expert mainstream research team shows
that both aspartame and MSG harm developing mouse neuroblastoma
cells: "Inhibition of neurite outgrowth was found at concentrations
of additives theoretically achievable in plasma by ingestion of a
typical snack and drink."

The possibility that prolong daily exposures would cause cumulative
effects was not studied.

Aspartame generally exerts its toxic effects by its rapid
disassociation in the GI tract into its three components:
50% phenylalanine, 39% aspartic acid, and 11% methanol (wood alcohol),
the last always quickly and largely turned into formaldehyde and then
formic acid, both extremely potent, cumulative toxins that harm every
cell and tissue.

The effects of methanol can be conveniently tested by using dimethyl
dicarbonate, approved as an additive to wines and other beverages,
which readily releases about the same amount of methanol in the body
as does aspartame:

DMDC: Dimethyl dicarbonate 200mg/L in drinks adds
methanol 98 mg/L [ becomes formaldehyde in body ]:
EU Scientific Committee on Foods 2001.07.12: Murray 2004.01.22

Without changing wording, I have increased spacing and altered
sequences in the first abstract
to increase clarity and add emphasis. ]

Toxicol Sci. 2005 Dec 13; [Epub ahead of print]
Synergistic interactions between commonly used food additives in a
developmental neurotoxicity test.
Lau K, McLean WG, Williams DP, Howard CV.
Developmental Toxicopathology Unit,
Department of Human Anatomy & Cell Biology,
University of Liverpool, Sherrington Buildings, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK;
Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics,
University of Liverpool, Sherrington Buildings, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK.
W. Graham McLean w.g.mclean@liv.ac.uk
C. V. Howard c.v.howard@liverpool.ac.uk
D. P. Williams dom@liv.ac.uk 0151 794 5791 http://www.liv.ac.uk/
Miss. Karen Lau karenlau@liv.ac.uk 0151 795 4223
[ Deborah A. Sawatzky
Paul J. Kingham
Craig N. Lippe
B. K. Park bkpark@liv.ac.uk
D. J. Naisbitt dnes@liv.ac.uk ; d.j.naisbitt@liv.ac.uk 0151 794 5346
Richard W. Costello rcostello@rcsi.ie
Patricia J. Manns trish.manns@ualberta.ca
M. M. Yarborough yarbroug@tamuk.edu
Dr Yvonne Allen Y.Allen@liverpool.ac.uk 0151 794 5449 ]

Exposure to non-nutritional food additives during the critical
development window has been implicated
in the induction and severity of behavioural
disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Although the use of single food additives
at their regulated concentrations is believed to be relatively safe
in terms of neuronal development,
their combined effects remain unclear.

We therefore examined the neurotoxic effects of four common
food additives in combinations of two
( aspartame and Quinoline Yellow,
L-glutamic acid and Brilliant Blue )
to assess potential interactions.

Mouse NB2a neuroblastoma cells were induced to differentiate and
grow neurites in the presence of additives.

After 24 h, cells were fixed and stained and neurite length measured by
light microscopy with computerised image analysis.

Neurotoxicity was measured as an inhibition of neurite outgrowth.

Two independent models were used to analyse combination effects:
effect additivity and dose additivity.

Significant synergy was observed between combinations
of aspartame with Quinoline Yellow, and
of L-glutamic acid with Brilliant Blue,
in both models.

Involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in food
additive-induced neurite inhibition
was assessed with a NMDA antagonist, CNS-1102.

L-glutamic acid- and aspartame-induced neurotoxicity
was reduced in the presence of CNS-1102;
however the antagonist
did not prevent food colour-induced neurotoxicity.

Theoretical exposure to additives was calculated based on analysis
of content in foodstuff,
and estimated percentage absorption from the gut.

Inhibition of neurite outgrowth was found at concentrations of additives
theoretically achievable in plasma
by ingestion of a typical snack and drink.

In addition, Trypan Blue dye exclusion was used to evaluate the cellular
toxicity of food additives on cell viability of NB2a cells;
both combinations had a straightforward additive effect on cytotoxicity.

These data have implications for the cellular effects of common chemical
entities ingested individually and in combination. PMID: 16352620
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Wednesday, December 21, 2005

Any unsuspected source of methanol, which the body always quickly
and largely turns into formaldehyde and then formic acid, must be
monitored, especially for high responsibility occupations, often with
night shifts, such as pilots and nuclear reactor operators.

In particular, the next review gives many recent mainstream
peer-reviewed studies that show formaldehyde,
always inevitably derived in the body from any methanol source,
including aspartame, causes endothelial injury,
ie, diabetic neuropathy -- among the most serious and complex
complications of diabetes.

many studies on endothelial injury (diabetic neuropathy) by adducts of
formaldehyde derived from methylamine from many of the same sources
as also supply methanol (formaldehyde), including aspartame:
PH Yu et al: DJ Conklin et al: Murray 2005.12.04

ubiquitous potent uncontrolled co-factors in nutrition research are
formaldehyde from wood and tobacco smoke and many sources,
including from methanol in dark wines and liquors, in pectins
in fruits and vegetables, and in aspartame: Murray 2005.12.21

aspartame causes cancer in rats at levels approved for humans,
Morando Soffritti et al, Ramazzini Foundation, Italy &
National Toxicology Program
of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
2005.11.17 Env. Health Pers. 35 pages: Murray

As a medical layman, I suggest that evidence mandates immediate
exploration of the role of these ubiquitious, potent formaldehyde
sources as co-factors in epidemiology, research, diagnosis,
and treatment in a wide variety of disorders.

Folic acid, from fruits and vegetables, plays a role by powerfully
protecting against methanol (formaldehyde) toxicity.

Many common drugs, such as aspirin, interfere with folic acid,
as do some mutations in relevant enzymes.

The majority of aspartame reactors are female.

In mutual service, Rich Murray
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"Of course, everyone chooses, as a natural priority,
to actively and positively find, quickly share, and act upon the facts
about healthy and safe food, drink, and environment."

Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@comcast.net
505-501-2298 1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505

group with 149 members, 1,271 posts in a public, searchable archive
http://RoomForAll.blogspot.com http://AspartameNM.blogspot.com

Dark wines and liquors, as well as aspartame, provide
similar levels of methanol, above 100 mg daily, for
long-term heavy users, 2 L daily, about 6 cans.

Methanol is inevitably largely turned into formaldehyde,
and thence largely into formic acid.
It is the major cause of the dreaded symptoms of "next
morning" hangover.

Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol -- 1,120 mg aspartame
in 2 L diet soda, almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg
methanol (wood alcohol). If 30% of the methanol is turned
into formaldehyde, the amount of formaldehyde, 37 mg,
is 18.5 times the USA EPA limit for daily formaldehyde in
drinking water, 2.0 mg in 2 L average daily drinking water.

faults in 1999 July EPA 468-page formaldehyde profile:
Elzbieta Skrzydlewska PhD, Assc. Prof., Medical U. of
Bialystok, Poland, abstracts -- ethanol, methanol,
formaldehyde, formic acid, acetaldehyde, lipid peroxidation,
green tea, aging: Murray 2004.08.08 2005.07.11

ATSDR: EPA limit 1 ppm formaldehyde in drinking water July
1999: Murray 2002.05.30 rmforall

Aspartame is made of phenylalanine (50% by weight) and
aspartic acid (39%), both ordinary amino acids, bound
loosely together by methanol (wood alcohol, 11%).
The readily released methanol from aspartame is within hours
turned by the liver into formaldehyde and then formic acid,
both potent, cumulative toxins.

Nurses Health Study can quickly reveal the extent of aspartame
(methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity: Murray 2004.11.21
[ Any scientist can get access to this data for free by submitting a proper
research proposal.
No one has admitted mining the extensive data on diet soda use
and many symptoms for decades for about 100,000 nurses. ]

aspartame (methanol, phenylalanine, aspartic acid) effects, detailed
expert studies in 2005 Aug and 1998 July, Tsakiris S, Schulpis KH,
Karikas GA, Kokotos G, Reclos RJ, et al,
Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece: Murray 2005.09.09

aspartame (aspartic acid, phenylalanine) binding to DNA:
Karikas July 1998: Murray 2003.01.05 rmforall
Karikas GA, Schulpis KH, Reclos GJ, Kokotos G
Measurement of molecular interaction of aspartame and
its metabolites with DNA. Clin Biochem 1998 Jul; 31(5): 405-7.
Dept. of Chemistry, University of Athens, Greece
http://www.chem.uoa.gr gkokotos@atlas.uoa.gr
K.H. Schulpis inchildh@otenet.gr G.J. Reclos reklos@otenet.gr

Murray, full plain text & critique: chronic aspartame in rats affects
memory, brain cholinergic receptors, and brain chemistry, Christian B,
McConnaughey M et al, 2004 May: 2004.06.05

eyelid contact dermatitis by formaldehyde from aspartame,
AM Hill & DV Belsito, Nov 2003: Murray 2004.03.30

Thrasher (2001): "The major difference is that the Japanese
demonstrated the incorporation of FA and its metabolites into the
placenta and fetus.
The quantity of radioactivity remaining in maternal and fetal tissues
at 48 hours was 26.9% of the administered dose." [ Ref. 14-16 ]

Arch Environ Health 2001 Jul-Aug; 56(4): 300-11.
Embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of formaldehyde. [100 references]
Thrasher JD, Kilburn KH. toxicology@drthrasher.org
Sam-1 Trust, Alto, New Mexico, USA.
http://www.drthrasher.org/formaldehyde_embryo_toxicity.html full text

DMDC: Dimethyl dicarbonate 200mg/L in drinks adds
methanol 98 mg/L [ becomes formaldehyde in body ]: EU Scientific
Committee on Foods 2001.07.12: Murray 2004.01.22

aspartame puts formaldehyde adducts into tissues, Part 1/2
full text Trocho & Alemany 1998.06.26: Murray 2002.12.22

Aspartame disease: an FDA-approved epidemic, H. J. Roberts,
MD 2004: Murray 2005.09.30

Aspartame -- the shocking story, The Ecologist, 2005 Sept.,
p. 35-51, full text: Murray 2005.09.30: the correct author,
Pat Thomas, What Doctors Don't Tell You www.wddty.co.uk (http://www.wddty.co.uk) :

genotoxicity of aspartame in human lymphocytes 2004.07.29
full plain text, Rencuzogullari E et al, Cukurova University,
Adana, Turkey 2004 Aug: Murray 2004.11.06

NM EIB votes 4-2 for 5-day aspartame toxicity hearing July,
2006, requesting a Hearing Officer and a medical expert from
Environmental Dept. and legal advice from NM Attorney
General: Murray 2005.10.04

ubiquitous potent uncontrolled co-factors in nutrition research are
formaldehyde from wood and tobacco smoke and many sources,
including from methanol in dark wines and liquors, in pectins
in fruits and vegetables, and in aspartame: Murray 2005.12.21
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hangover research relevant to toxicity of 11% methanol in
aspartame (formaldehyde, formic acid): Calder I (full text):
Jones AW: Murray 2004.08.05 2005.09.28

Since no adaquate data has ever been published on the exact
disposition of toxic metabolites in specific tissues in
humans of the 11% methanol component of aspartame, the many
studies on morning-after hangover from the methanol impurity
in alcohol drinks are the main available resource to date.

Jones AW (1987) found next-morning hangover from red wine
with 100 to 150 mg methanol (9.5% w/v ethanol, 100 mg/L
methanol, 0.01%, one part in ten thousand).

Joining together: short review: research on aspartame
methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity: Murray
2005.07.08 rmforall

research on aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid)
toxicity: Murray2004.04.29 rmforall

aspartame causes cancer in rats at levels approved for humans,
Morando Soffritti et al, Ramazzini Foundation, Italy &
National Toxicology Program
of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
2005.11.17 Env. Health Pers. 35 pages: Murray

USA National Institutes of Health National Toxicology
Program aids eminent Ramazzini Foundation, Bologna, Italy,
in more results on cancers in rats from lifetime low levels
of aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde), Felicity Lawrence,
www.guardian.co.uk: (http://www.guardian.co.uk:) Murray 2005.09.30

aspartame induces lymphomas and leukaemias in rats, full plain text,
M Soffritti, F Belpoggi, DD Esposti, L Lambertini: Ramazzini
Foundation study 2005.07.14: main results agree with their previous
methanol and formaldehyde studies: Murray 2005.09.03

Michael F Jacobson of CSPI now and in 1985 re aspartame
toxicity, letter to FDA Commissioner Lester Crawford;
California OEHHA aspartame critique 2004.03.12; Center for
Consumer Freedom denounces CSPI: Murray 2005.07.27

methanol (formaldehyde, formic acid) disposition: Bouchard M
et al, full plain text, 2001: substantial sources are
degradation of fruit pectins, liquors, aspartame, smoke:
Murray 2005.04.02
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critique of aspartame review, French Food Safety Agency AFSSA
2002.05.07 aspartamgb.pdf (18 pages, in English), Martin Hirsch:
Murray 2004.04.13

safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF,
EU Scientific Committee on Food, a whitewash; Murray 2003.01.12

Mark Gold exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific
Committee on Food re aspartame ( 2002.12.04 ): 59 pages, 230 references

http://www.HolisticMed.com/aspartame mgold@holisticmed.com
Aspartame Toxicity Information Center Mark D. Gold
12 East Side Drive #2-18 Concord, NH 03301 603-225-2100
"Scientific Abuse in Aspartame Research"

Gold points out that industry methanol assays were too insensitive to
properly measure blood methanol levels. ]

J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Feb; 104(2): 255-75.
Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and
nonnutritive sweeteners. American Dietetic Association.

critique of aspartame review by American Dietetic Association
Feb 2004, Valerie B. Duffy & Madeleine J. Sigman-Grant:
Murray 2004.05.14

"Survey of aspartame studies: correlation of outcome and funding
sources," 1998, unpublished: http://www.dorway.com/peerrev.html
Walton found 166 separate published studies in the peer reviewed
medical literature, which had relevance for questions of human safety.
The 74 studies funded by industry all (100%) attested to aspartame's
safety, whereas of the 92 non-industry funded studies, 84 (91%)
identified a problem. Six of the seven non-industry funded studies
that were favorable to aspartame safety were from the FDA, which
has a public record that shows a strong pro-industry bias.
Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern Ohio
Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown,
OH 44501, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240
Youngstown, OH 44501 330-740-3621 rwalton193@aol.com

www.dorway.com: (http://www.dorway.com:) original documents and long reviews of flaws in
aspartame toxicity research: Murray 2002.07.31

Samuels: Strong: Roberts: Gold: flaws in double-blind studies re
aspartame and MSG toxicity: Murray 2002.08.01

http://www.truthinlabeling.org/ Truth in Labeling Campaign [MSG]
Adrienne Samuels, PhD The toxicity/safety of processed
free glutamic acid (MSG): a study in suppression of information.
Accountability in Research 1999; 6: 259-310. 52-page review
P.O. Box 2532 Darien, Illinois 60561
858-481-9333 adandjack@aol.com

aspartame expose 96K Oct 1987 Part 1/3:
Gregory Gordon, UPI reporter: Murray 2000.07.10

aspartame history Part 1/4 1964-1976: Gold: Murray 1999.11.06

revolving door, Monsanto, FDA, EPA: NGIN: Murray 2002.12.23

Donald Rumsfeld, 1977 head of Searle Corp., got aspartame FDA
approval: Turner: Murray 2002.12.23 rmforall
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01-11-2006, 10:59 PM
Great Article
More information like this is getting out about aspartame. Glad to see forums like this.

04-17-2006, 02:01 PM
About 20 years or so ago, did anyone hear something about a big container ship being loaded? One of the containers full of aspartame was on the crane, fell, ruptured and supposedly killed all of the wildlife in a river. It was a big deal between a couple companies arguing over insurance and liability. I want to say this happened in Denmark. I cannot recall.

04-17-2006, 02:05 PM
Did one of those previous articles mention behavioral health studies from Youngstown, Ohio? That's right on top of where the one of the most "behavioral" people, Mike Tyson was raised. tongue.gif Keep studying.