View Full Version : Coca-Cola, aspartame, arsenic all cause cancer, Ramazzini Foundation, M Soffritti

11-29-2006, 11:51 PM
Fiorella Belpoggi & Morando Soffritti of Ramazzini Foundation prove
lifetime carcinogenicity of Coca-Cola, aspartame, and arsenic, Annals
of the NY Academy of Sciences: Murray 2006.11.28

Final aspartame results were presented at the 3rd international
scientific conference of the Collegium Ramazzini,
"Framing the Future in Light of the Past: Living in a Chemical World",
held in Bologna, Italy from September 18-21, 2005.


"Over 250 participants have registered for the conference and will
travel to Bologna from five continents and thirty-five countries to
take part in this unique three-day event. Participants include Fellows
of the Collegium Ramazzini, leaders of international agencies, scholars
from the world's foremost universities and representatives from various
industry and interest groups. As in 1985 and 1995, the conference
proceedings will be in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
and will provide a source of new and useful information for experts in
this sector."

Living in a Chemical World: Framing the Future in Light of the Past
Volume 1076 published September 2006
Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1076: (2006).
doi: 10.1196/annals.1371.080
Copyright © 2006 by the New York Academy of Sciences

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Sep; 1076: 736-52.
Results of long-term carcinogenicity bioassays on coca-cola
administered to sprague-dawley rats.
Belpoggi F,
Soffritti M,
Tibaldi E, Eva Tibaldi
Falcioni L,
Bua L,
Trabucco F.
Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation,
Castello di Bentivoglio, 40010 Bentivoglio (BO), Italy.

Coca-Cola was invented in May 1886 in Atlanta, Georgia by a pharmacist
who, by accident or design, mixed carbonated water with the syrup of
sugar, phosphoric acid, caffeine, and other natural flavors to create
what is known as "the world's favorite soft drink."

Coca-Cola is currently sold in more than 200 countries
and in early 2000, the company sold its 10 billionth unit case of
Coca-Cola branded products.

Given the worldwide consumption of Coca-Cola,
a project of experimental bioassays to study its long-term effects when
administered as substitute for drinking water on male and female
Sprague-Dawley rats was planned and executed.

The objective of the project was to study whether and how long-term
consumption of Coca-Cola affects the basic tumorigram of test animals.

The bioassays were performed on rats beginning at different ages,
(a) on males and females exposed since embryonic life or from 7 weeks
of age; and
(b) on males and females exposed from 30, 39, or 55 weeks of age.

Overall, the project included 1999 rats.

During the biophase,data were collected on fluid and feed consumption,
body weight, and survival.

Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death and
underwent complete necropsy.

The results indicate:
(a) an increase in body weight in all treated animals;
(b) a statistically significant increase of the incidence in females,
both breeders and offspring, bearing malignant mammary tumors;
(c) a statistically significant increase in the incidence of exocrine
ademonas of the pancreas in both male and female breeders and
offspring; and (d) an increased incidence, albeit not statistically
significant, of pancreatic islet cell carcinomas in females,
a malignant tumor which occurs very rarely in our historical controls.

On the basis of the results of this study, excessive consumption of
regular soft-drinks should be generally discouraged, in particular for
children and adolescents.
PMID: 17119251

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Sep; 1076: 559-77.
Results of long-term carcinogenicity bioassay on sprague-dawley rats
exposed to aspartame administered in feed.
Belpoggi F,
Soffritti M,
Padovani M,
Esposti DD,
Lauriola M,
Minardi F.
Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation,
Castello di Bentivoglio, Via Saliceto, 3, 40010 Bentivoglio, Bologna,
Italy. crcfr@ramazzini.it
Fiorella Belpoggi, Morando Soffritti, Michela Padovani, Davide Degli
Esposti, Michelina Lauriola, and Franco Minardi

Aspartame (APM) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners in
the world.

Its ever-growing use in more than 6000 products, such as soft drinks,
chewing gum, candy, desserts, etc., has been accompanied by rising
consumer concerns regarding its safety, in particular its potential
long-term carcinogenic effects.

In light of the inadequacy of the carcinogenicity bioassays performed
in the 1970s and 1980s, a long-term mega-experiment on APM was
undertaken at the Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European
Ramazzini Foundation on groups of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats
(100-150/sex/group), 8 weeks old at the start of the experiment.

APM was administered in feed at concentrations of 100,000, 50,000,
10,000, 2,000, 400, 80, or 0 ppm.

Treatment lasted until spontaneous death of the animals.

The results of the study demonstrate that APM causes:
(a) an increased incidence of malignant tumor-bearing animals,
with a positive significant trend in both sexes,
and in particular in females treated at 50,000 ppm (P 0.01)
when compared to controls;
(b) an increase in lymphomas-leukemias,
with a positive significant trend in both sexes,
and in particular in females treated at doses of
100,000 (P 0.01), 50,000 (P 0.01), 10,000 (P 0.05),
2000 (P 0.05), and 400 ppm (P 0.01);
(c) a statistically significant increased incidence,
with a positive significant trend, of transitional cell carcinomas of
the renal pelvis and ureter in females
and particularly in those treated at 100,000 ppm (P 0.05); and
(d) an increased incidence of malignant schwannomas of the peripheral
nerves, with a positive trend in males (P 0.05).

The results of this mega-experiment indicate that APM, in the tested
experimental conditions, is a multipotential carcinogenic agent.
PMID: 17119233

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Sep; 1076: 578-91.
Results of a long-term carcinogenicity bioassay on sprague-dawley rats
exposed to sodium arsenite administered in drinking water.
Soffritti M,
Belpoggi F,
Degli Esposti D,
Lambertini L. Luca Lambertini
Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation,
Castello di Bentivoglio, Via Saliceto, 3, 40010 Bentivoglio, Bologna,
Italy. crcfr@ramazzini.it

Arsenic (As) is a metal found in nature whose acute and chronic toxic
effects have been known for decades.

Hundreds of millions of people are at risk of exposure to As and its
various chemical forms which can occur in the occupational and general
environment in air, water, soil, food, and medicines.

Several epidemiological studies have shown that prolonged exposure to
As can induce various types of malignant tumors in humans, namely,
skin, lung, liver, kidney, and bladder cancers.

These effects have been observed particularly in geographic areas where
people are exposed to well water with high concentrations of As.

While the risks of As at high concentrations are well documented,
there is still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the risk of
exposure to As at very low levels.

This uncertainty is due to the absence of adequate epidemiological data
and the insufficiency of experimental data currently available.

Given the limited evidence demonstrating the carcinogenic potential of
As in animals, a long-term carcinogenicity bioassay on sodium arsenite
(NaAsO2) was performed at the Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center
(CMCRC) of the European Ramazzini Foundation (ERF).

NaAsO2 was administrated with drinking water at concentrations of 200,
100, 50, or 0 mg/L, for 104 weeks to Sprague-Dawley rats
(50/sex/group), 8 weeks old at the start of the study.

The animals were monitored until spontaneous death at which time each
animal underwent complete necropsy.

Histopathological evaluation of all pathological lesions and of all
organs and tissues collected was routinely performed on each animal.

The results demonstrate that in our experimental conditions NaAsO2
induces sparse benign and malignant tumors among treated rats.

The types of tumors observed are infrequent in the strain of
Sprague-Dawley rats of the colony used in our laboratory, namely,
lung adenomas and carcinomas,
kidney adenomas/papillomas and carcinomas,
and bladder carcinomas.

Notably, an elevated incidence of these types of oncological lesions is
also observed among people living in geographical areas where As is
present at higher concentrations in drinking water.
PMID: 17119234

PubMed abstract: aspartame (methanol becoming formaldehyde) causes
many cancers in rats, Ramazzini Foundation, M Soffritti et al:
Murray 2006.03.06

ehponline.org/members/2005/8711/8711.html free full text

Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Mar; 114(3): 379-85.
First experimental demonstration of the multipotential carcinogenic
effects of aspartame administered in the feed to sprague-dawley rats.
Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Esposti DD,
Lambertini L, Tibaldi E, Rigano A.
Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini
Foundation of Oncology and Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy.

Key words: artificial sweetener, aspartame, carcinogenicity,
lymphomas, malignant schwannomas, rats, renal pelvis carcinomas.
PMID: 16507461 Feb 24 2006 04:49:50

Address correspondence to M. Soffritti, Cesare Maltoni Cancer
Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation of Oncology and
Environmental Sciences, Castello di Bentivoglio, Via Saliceto, 3,
40010 Bentivoglio, Bologna, Italy. 39-051-6640460
Fax: 39-051-6640223 crcfr@ramazzini.it
We thank the U.S. National Toxicology Program for convening a group
of pathologists at the
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
to provide a second opinion for a set of malignant lesions and their
precursors related to aspartame treatment, and for their help in
statistical analysis.
We also thank all of the staff involved in the project.
This research was supported by the European Ramazzini Foundation of
Oncology and Environmental Sciences.
The authors declare they have no competing financial interests.
Received 3 October 2005; accepted 16 November 2005.

[ transcribed to plain text ]
Table 1. Beverages and diet products studied at the CMCRC/ERF:
status of studies.

Study---------------------------No. of bioassays
---Products-------------------------Species---------No. Study status

1 Water in
polyvinyl chloride bottles---------2 rat a--------------2,200 P b

2 Coca-Cola---------------------4 rat a--------------1,999 RP

3 Pepsi Cola----------------------1 rat-----------------400 E

4 Ethyl alcohol--------------------4 rat, mouse a------1,458 P c

5 Sucrose-------------------------1 rat-----------------400 E

6 Aspartame (APM)--------------6 rat, mouse a------4,460 BO, PP d

7 Sucralose (Splenda)-------------1 mouse *-----------760 BO

8 Caffeine-------------------------1 rat-----------------800 E

9 Vitamin A-----------------------5 rat----------------5,100 E

10 Vitamin C----------------------5 rat----------------3,680 E

11 Vitamin E----------------------5 rat----------------3,680 E

12 Feed sterilized by--------------1 rat a---------------2,000 E
gamma radiation


BO, biophase ongoing
E, in elaboration
P, published
PP, partially published
RP, ready for publication
a, treatment started from embryonic life
b, data from Maltoni et al. (1997)
c, data from Soffritti et al. (2002a)
d, data from Soffritti et al. (2005).
*, data from Soffritti et al. (1992)

Investigations into the metabolism of APM have shown that,
in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans,
it is metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract
into three constituents --
aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol --
which are absorbed into the systemic circulation (Ranney et al. 1976).

For each molecule of APM,
one molecule of each constituent is produced.

After absorption, they are then used, metabolized, and/or excreted by
the body following the same metabolic pathways
as when consumed through the ordinary diet:

aspartate is transformed into alanine plus oxaloacetate (Stegink 1984);

phenylalanine is transformed mainly into tyrosine and, to a smaller
extent, phenylethylamine and phenylpyruvate (Harper 1984);

and methanol is transformed into formaldehyde and then to formic acid
(Opperman 1984).
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aspartame causes cancer in rats at levels approved for humans,
Morando Soffritti et al, Ramazzini Foundation, Italy &
National Toxicology Program
of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
2005.11.17 Env. Health Pers. 35 pages: Murray

USA National Institutes of Health National Toxicology
Program aids eminent Ramazzini Foundation, Bologna, Italy,
in more results on cancers in rats from lifetime low levels
of aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde), Felicity Lawrence,
www.guardian.co.uk: (http://www.guardian.co.uk:) Murray 2005.09.30

aspartame induces lymphomas and leukaemias in rats, full plain text,
M Soffritti, F Belpoggi, DD Esposti, L Lambertini: Ramazzini
Foundation study 2005.07.14: main results agree with their previous
methanol and formaldehyde studies: Murray 2005.09.03

Michael F Jacobson of CSPI now and in 1985 re aspartame
toxicity, letter to FDA Commissioner Lester Crawford;
California OEHHA aspartame critique 2004.03.12; Center for
Consumer Freedom denounces CSPI: Murray 2005.07.27

President Bush & formaldehyde (aspartame) toxicity:
Ramazzini Foundation carcinogenicity results Dec 2002:
Soffritti: Murray 2003.08.03 rmforall

p. 88 "The sweetening agent aspartame hydrolyzes in the
gastrointestinal tract to become free methyl alcohol,
which is metabolized in the liver
to formaldehyde, formic acid, and CO2. (11)"
Medinsky MA & Dorman DC. 1994; Assessing risks of low-level
methanol exposure. CIIT Act. 14: 1-7.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 982: 87-105.
Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of
formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in rats.
Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Lambertin L,
Lauriola M, Padovani M, Maltoni C.
Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for Oncology
and Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. crcfr@ramazzini.it

Formaldehyde was administered for 104 weeks in drinking water
supplied ad libitum at concentrations of
1500, 1000, 500, 100, 50, 10, or 0 mg/L
to groups of 50 male and 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats beginning at
seven weeks of age.
Control animals (100 males and 100 females) received tap water only.
Acetaldehyde was administered to 50 male and 50 female
Sprague-Dawley rats beginning at six weeks of age at concentrations of
2,500, 1,500, 500, 250, 50, or 0 mg/L.
Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death.
Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to produce an increase
in total malignant tumors in the treated groups
and showed specific carcinogenic effects on various organs and tissues.
PMID: 12562630

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 982: 46-69.
Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of
methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol in rats.
Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Cevolani D,
Guarino M, Padovani M, Maltoni C.
Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for Oncology
and Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. crcfr@ramazzini.it

Methyl alcohol was administered in drinking water
supplied ad libitum at doses of
20,000, 5,000, 500, or 0 ppm to groups of male and female
Sprague-Dawley rats 8 weeks old at the start of the experiment.
Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death.
Ethyl alcohol was administered by ingestion in drinking water at a
concentration of 10% or 0% supplied ad libitum to groups of male and
female Sprague-Dawley rats; breeders and offspring were included in
the experiment.
Treatment started at 39 weeks of age (breeders), 7 days before mating,
or from embryo life (offspring)
and lasted until their spontaneous death.
Under tested experimental conditions, methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol
were demonstrated to be carcinogenic for various organs and tissues.
They must also be considered multipotential carcinogenic agents.
In addition to causing other tumors, ethyl alcohol induced malignant
tumors of the oral cavity, tongue, and lips.
These sites have been shown to be target organs in man by
epidemiologic studies.
Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 12562628

Obfuscation of the iatrogenic autism epidemic re mercury in kid
vaccines, Kenneth P. Stoller, Pediatrics 2006.05.06;
aspartame toxicity 2005.11.10: Comet assay can test genotoxicity,
EFSA admits ignorance re methanol residues, Murray 2006.05.10

Morando Soffritti of Ramazzini Foundation rebuts EFSA AFC critique,
www.laleva.org: (http://www.laleva.org:) Murray 2006.05.05

European Food Safety Authority discounts Ramazzini study re many
cancers in 1800 rats fed lifetime doses of aspartame:
Calorie Control Council press release: Murray 2006.05.05






Aspartame: The healthy option? Richard A. Lovett, The New Scientist
2006.05.04: Murray 2006.05.08

The Lowdown on Sweet? (Ramazzini Foundation, M Soffritti proof that
aspartame causes cancers), Melanie Warner, The New York Times:
sucralose: Prof. DL Katz: Murray 2006.02.12

David L. Katz MD comments briefly with Diane Sawyer on ABC
Good Morning America re Ramazzini aspartame cancer study:
excellent opus at Yale U: mainstream research on aspartame
(methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity: Murray 2006.02.14

safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF:
Murray 2003.01.12 rmforall EU Scientific Committee on Food,
a whitewash

Mark Gold exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific
Committee on Food re aspartame ( 2002.12.04 ):
59 pages, 230 references
************************************************** *****

short aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde) toxicity research summary:
Murray 2006.11.28

"Of course, everyone chooses, as a natural priority,
to actively find, quickly share, and positively act upon the facts
about healthy and safe food, drink, and environment."

Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@comcast.net
505-501-2298 1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505

group with 80 members, 1,382 posts in a public, searchable archive

aspartame groups and books: updated research review of 2004.07.16:
Murray 2006.05.11

11 members of New Mexico legislature sign letter to ban aspartame as a
source of toxic methanol and formaldehyde, Stephen Fox, NM Senator
Gerald Ortiz y Pino: Murray 2006.10.22

47 UK Members of Parliament now support aspartame ban initiative of
Roger Williams, MP: Murray 2006.10.16

combining aspartame and quinoline yellow, or MSG and brilliant blue,
harms nerve cells, eminent C. Vyvyan Howard et al, 2005
education.guardian.co.uk, Felicity Lawrence: Murray 2005.12.21

50% UK baby food is now organic -- aspartame or MSG
with food dyes harm nerve cells, CV Howard 3 year study
funded by Lizzy Vann, CEO, Organix Brands,
Children's Food Advisory Service: Murray 2006.01.13

all three aspartame metabolites harm human erythrocyte [red blood cell]
membrane enzyme activity, KH Schulpis et al, two studies in 2005,
Athens, Greece, 2005.12.14: 2004 research review, RL Blaylock:
Murray 2006.01.14

toxicity in rat brains from aspartame, Vences-Mejia A, Espinosa-Aguirre
JJ et al 2006 Aug: Murray 2006.09.06

aspartame rat brain toxicity re cytochrome P450 enzymes, expecially
CYP2E1, Vences-Mejia A, Espinosa-Aguirre JJ et al, 2006 Aug,
Hum Exp Toxicol: relevant abstracts re formaldehyde from methanol
in alcohol drinks: Murray 2006.09.29

Bristol, Connecticut, schools join state program to limit artificial
sweeteners, sugar, fats for 8800 students, Johnny J Burnham, The
Bristol Press: Murray 2006.09.22

Connecticut bans artificial sweeteners in schools, Nancy Barnes,
New Milford Times: Murray 2006.05.25

carcinogenic effect of inhaled formaldehyde, Federal Institute of Risk
Assessment, Germany -- same safe level as for Canada:
Murray 2006.06.02

Home sickness -- indoor air often worse, as our homes seal in
[one is formaldehyde, also from the 11% methanol part of aspartame],
Megan Gillis, WinnipegSun.com: Murray 2006.06.01

methanol (formaldehyde, formic acid) disposition: Bouchard M
et al, full plain text, 2001: substantial sources are
degradation of fruit pectins, liquors, aspartame, smoke:
Murray 2005.04.02

NIH NLM ToxNet HSDB Hazardous Substances Data Bank
inadequate re aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid):
Murray 2006.08.19

HSDB Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Aspartame


formaldehyde from 11% methanol part of aspartame or from red wine
causes same toxicity (hangover) harm: Murray 2006.05.24

Dark wines and liquors, as well as aspartame, provide
similar levels of methanol, above 120 mg daily, for
long-term heavy users, 2 L daily, about 6 cans.

Within hours, methanol is inevitably largely turned into formaldehyde,
and thence largely into formic acid -- the major causes of the dreaded
symptoms of "next morning" hangover.

Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol -- 1,120 mg aspartame
in 2 L diet soda, almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg
methanol (wood alcohol). If 30% of the methanol is turned
into formaldehyde, the amount of formaldehyde, 37 mg,
is 18.5 times the USA EPA limit for daily formaldehyde in
drinking water, 2.0 mg in 2 L average daily drinking water.

Any unsuspected source of methanol, which the body always quickly
and largely turns into formaldehyde and then formic acid, must be
monitored, especially for high responsibility occupations, often with
night shifts, such as pilots and nuclear reactor operators.

DMDC: Dimethyl dicarbonate 200mg/L in drinks adds methanol 98 mg/L
( becomes formaldehyde in body ): EU Scientific Committee on Foods
2001.07.12: Murray 2004.01.22

HolisticMed.com/aspartame mgold@holisticmed.com
Aspartame Toxicity Information Center Mark D. Gold
12 East Side Drive #2-18 Concord, NH 03301 603-225-2100

"Scientific Abuse in Aspartame Research"

Russell L. Blaylock, MD discusses MSG, aspartame, excitotoxins
with Mike Adams: Murray 2006.09.27

Mike Adams interviews Randall Fitzgerald on "The Hundred Year Lie:
How Food and Medicine are Destroying Your Health" 2006.06.21:
Murray 2006.09.28
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