aspartame: methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid toxicity:
brief review: Murray 1.13.3 rmforall
Rich Murray, MA Room For All firstname.lastname@example.org
1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 USA 505-986-9103
for 959 posts in a public searchable archive
formaldehyde & formic acid from methanol in aspartame:
Murray: 12.9.2 rmforall
It is certain that high levels of aspartame use, above 2 liters daily
for months and years, must lead to chronic formaldehyde-formic acid
toxicity, since 11% of aspartame (1,120 mg in 2L diet soda, 5.6 12-oz
cans) is 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol), immediately released into the
body after drinking (unlike the large levels of methanol locked up in
molecules inside many fruits), then quickly transformed into
formaldehyde, which in turn becomes formic acid, both of which in
time become carbon dioxide and water-- however, about 30% of the
methanol remains in the body as cumulative durable toxic metabolites of
formaldehyde and formic acid-- 37 mg daily, a gram every month.
If 10% of the methanol is retained as formaldehyde, that would give 12
mg daily formaldehyde accumulation, about 60 times more than the 0.2 mg
from 10% retention of the 2 mg EPA daily limit for formaldehyde in
Bear in mind that the EPA limit for formaldehyde in
drinking water is 1 ppm,
or 2 mg daily for a typical daily consumption of 2 L of water.
RTM: ATSDR: EPA limit 1 ppm formaldehyde in drinking water July 1999
This long-term low-level chronic toxic exposure leads to typical
patterns of increasingly severe complex symptoms, starting with
headache, fatigue, joint pain, irritability, memory loss, and leading to
vision and eye problems and even seizures. In many cases there is
addiction. Probably there are immune system disorders, with a
hypersensitivity to these toxins and other chemicals.
Confirming evidence and a general theory are given by Pall (2002):
testable theory of MCS type diseases, vicious cycle of nitric oxide &
peroxynitrite: MSG: formaldehyde-methanol-aspartame:
Martin L. Pall: Murray: 12.9.2 rmforall
Functional Therapeutics in Neurodegenerative Disease Part 1/2:
Perlmutter 7.15.99: Murray 1.10.3 rmforall
formaldehyde toxicity: Thrasher & Kilburn: Shaham: EPA: Gold: Murray:
Wilson: CIIN: 12.12.2 rmforall
24 recent formaldehyde toxicity [Comet assay] reports:
Murray 12.31.2 rmforall
comet assay finds DNA damage from sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin in
mice: Sasaki YF & Tsuda S Aug 2002: Murray 1.1.3 rmforall
aspartame (aspartic acid, phenylalanine) binding to DNA:
Karikas July 1998: Murray 1.5.3 rmforall
Karikas GA, Schulpis KH, Reclos GJ, Kokotos G
Measurement of molecular interaction of aspartame and
its metabolites with DNA. Clin Biochem 1998 Jul; 31(5): 405-7.
Dept. of Chemistry, University of Athens, Greece
http://www.dorway.com/tldaddic.html 5-page review
Roberts HJ Aspartame (NutraSweet) addiction.
Townsend Letter 2000 Jan; HJRobertsMD@aol.com
Sunshine Sentinel Press P.O.Box 17799 West Palm Beach, FL 33416
800-814-9800 561-588-7628 561-547-8008 fax
1038-page medical text "Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic"
published May 30 2001 $ 85.00 postpaid data from 1200 cases
available at http://www.amazon.com
over 600 references from standard medical research
http://www.aspartameispoison.com/contents.html 34 chapters
Roberts, Hyman J., 1924- ,
Useful insights for diagnosis, treatment and public heath: an updated
anthology of original research, 2002, 798 pages,
Palm Beach Institute for Medical Research, Inc.
P.O. Box 17799, West Palm Beach, FL 33416
fax 561-547-8008 dr.roberts@PB-medical-search.com
aspartame disease pages 627-685, 778-780 .
RTM: Roberts: the life work of a brilliant clinician:
aspartame toxicity 8.2.2 rmforall
review Roberts "Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic" 2.7.2 rmforall
RTM: Smith, Terpening, Schmidt, Gums:
full text: aspartame, MSG, fibromyalgia 1.17.2 rmforall
Jerry D Smith, Chris M Terpening, Siegfried OF Schmidt, and John G Gums
Relief of Fibromyalgia Symptoms Following
Discontinuation of Dietary Excitotoxins.
The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2001; 35(6): 702706.
Malcolm Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville, FL, USA.
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a common rheumatologic disorder that is
often difficult to treat effectively.
CASE SUMMARY: Four patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome
for two to 17 years are described.
All had undergone multiple treatment
modalities with limited success. All had complete, or nearly complete,
resolution of their symptoms within months after eliminating monosodium
glutamate (MSG) or MSG plus aspartame from their diet.
All patients were women with multiple comorbidities
prior to elimination of MSG.
All have had recurrence of symptoms whenever MSG is ingested.
Siegfried O. Schmidt, MD Asst. Clinical Prof. email@example.com
Community Health and Family Medicine, U. Florida, Gainesville, FL
West Oak Clinic Gainesville, FL 32608-3629 352-376-5071
Debbie J. Hypes firstname.lastname@example.org 304-872-4141 (Case # 1 of 4)
P.O Box 25 Lookout, WV 25868-0025 She has about 1,000 on her local
mailing list, and has been a volunteer activist since 1997. Her guide
first came out in 1997: http://www.Pain-Free-Living.net
"The Food Plan: How To Do It" $ 5 by mail, free by email.
Her sister Darlene, now 47, cured her own severe fibromyalgia in 1995
by using an elimination diet, and then Debbie also cured herself by
1997. Their doctor, Siegfried Schmidt, paying attention, tried it on
two selected women, who got well, and are his third and fourth cases.
RTM: aspartame in Merck Maxalt-MLT worsens migraine,
AstraZeneca Zomig, Eli Lilly Zyprexa,
J&J Merck Pepcid AC (Famotidine 10mg) Chewable Tab,
Pfizer Cool Mint Listerine Pocketpaks 7.16.2 rmforall
Migraine MLT-Down: an unusual presentation of migraine
in patients with aspartame-triggered headaches.
Newman LC, Lipton RB Headache 2001 Oct; 41(9): 899-901.
[Merck 10-mg Maxalt-MLT, for migraine, has 3.75 mg aspartame,
while 12 oz diet soda has 200 mg.]
Headache Institute, St. Lukes-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY
Department of Neurology email@example.com
Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
Innovative Medical Research RLipton@IMRInc.com
RTM: Blumenthall & Vance:
aspartame chewing gum headaches Nov 1997 7.28.2 rmforall
Harvey J. Blumenthal, MD, Dwight A Vance, RPh
Chewing Gum Headaches.
Headache 1997 Nov-Dec; 37(10): 665-6.
Department of Neurology, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine,
Tulsa, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Aspartame, a popular dietetic sweetener, may provoke headache in some
susceptible individuals. Herein, we describe three cases of young women
with migraine who reported their headaches could be provoked by chewing
gum sweetened with aspartame. [6-8 mg aspartame per stick chewing gum]
aspartame puts formaldehyde adducts into tissues, Part 1/2
full text, Trocho & Alemany 6.26.98: Murray 12.22.2 rmforall
aspartame puts formaldehyde adducts into tissues, Part 2/2
full text, Trocho & Alemany 6.26.98: Murray 12.22.2 rmforall
Trocho C, Pardo R, Rafecas I, Virgili J, Remesar X,
Fernandez-Lopez JA, Alemany M ["Trok-ho"]
Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue
components in vivo. Life Sci 1998 Jun 26; 63(5): 337-49.
Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia,
Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
Maria Alemany, PhD (male) email@example.com
Murray: Butchko, Tephly, McMartin: Alemany: aspartame formaldehyde
adducts in rats 9.8.2 rmforall
Prof. Alemany vigorously affirms the validity of the Trocho study
Butchko, HH et al [24 authors], Aspartame: review of safety.
Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2002 April 1; 35 (2 Pt 2): S1-93, review
available for $35, [an industry paid organ]. Butchko:
"When all the research on aspartame, including evaluations in both the
premarketing and postmarketing periods, is examined as a whole, it is
clear that aspartame is safe, and there are no unresolved questions
regarding its safety under conditions of intended use."
[They repeatedly pass on the ageless industry deceit that the methanol
in fruits and vegetables is as as biochemically available as that in
aspartame-- see the 1984 rebuttal by Monte, below.]
RTP ties to industry criticized by CSPI: Murray: 12.9.2 rmforall
immune system reactions due to formaldehyde from the 11% methanol in
aspartame: Thrasher: Tephly: Monte: Murray 9.27.2 rmforall
J. Nutrition 1973 Oct; 103(10): 1454-1459.
Metabolism of aspartame in monkeys.
Oppermann JA, Muldoon E, Ranney RE.
Dept. of Biochemistry, Searle Laboratories,
Division of G.D. Searle and Co. Box 5110, Chicago, IL 60680
They found that about 70% of the radioactive methanol in aspartame put
into the stomachs of 3 to 7 kg monkeys was eliminated within a day as
carbon dioxide in exhaled air and as water in the urine. They did not
mention that this meant that about 30% of the methanol must transform
into formaldehyde and then into formic acid, much of which must remain
as toxic products in all parts of the body. They did not report any
studies on the distribution of radioactivity in body tissues, except
that blood plasma proteins after 4 days held 4% of the initial
methanol. This study did not monitor long-term use of aspartame.
MCS, aspartame, formaldehyde, other toxicants: Kerns: Murray 9.27.2
rmforall [an excellent overview]
Rich Murray: Professional House Doctors: Singer: EPA: CPSC:
formaldehyde toxicity 6.10.1 rmforall
Rich Murray: Gold: Koehler: Walton: Van Den Eeden: Leon:
aspartame toxicity 6.4.1 rmforall
Rich Murray: Simmons: Gold: Schiffman: Spiers:
aspartame toxicity 6.4.1 rmforall
Aspartame: Methanol and the Public Interest 1984:
Monte: Murray 9.23.2 rmforall
Dr. Woodrow C. Monte Aspartame: methanol, and the public health.
Journal of Applied Nutrition 1984; 36 (1): 42-54.
(62 references) Professsor of Food Science
Director of the Food Science and Nutrition Laboratory
Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287
6411 South River Drive #61 Tempe, Arizona 85283-3337
602-965-6938 firstname.lastname@example.org [now retired in New Zealand]
The methanol from 2 L of diet soda, 5.6 12-oz cans, 20 mg/can, is
112 mg, 10% of the aspartame. The EPA limit for water is 7.8 mg daily
for methanol (wood alcohol), a deadly cumulative poison. Many users
drink 1-2 L daily. The reported symptoms are entirely consistent
with chronic methanol toxicity. (Fresh orange juice has 34 mg/L, but,
like all juices, has 16 times more ethanol, which strongly protects
"Fruit and vegetables contain pectin with variable methyl ester
content. However, the human has no digestive enzymes for pectin (6, 25)
particularly the pectin esterase required
for its hydrolysis to methanol (26).
Fermentation in the gut may cause disappearance of pectin (6) but the
production of free methanol is not guaranteed by fermentation (3). In
fact, bacteria in the colon probably reduce methanol directly to formic
acid or carbon dioxide (6) (aspartame is completely absorbed before
reaching the colon). Heating of pectins has been shown to cause
virtually no demethoxylation; even temperatures of 120 deg C produced
only traces of methanol (3). Methanol evolved during cooking of high
pectin foods (7) has been accounted for in the volatile fraction during
boiling and is quickly lost to the atmosphere (49).
Entrapment of these volatiles probably accounts for the elevation in
methanol levels of certain fruit and vegetable products
during canning (31, 33)."
Recent research [see links at end of post] supports his focus on the
methanol to formaldehyde toxic process:
"The United States Environmental Protection Agency in their Multimedia
Environmental Goals for Environmental Assessment recommends a minimum
acute toxicity concentration of methanol in drinking water at 3.9 parts
per million, with a recommended limit of consumption below 7.8 mg/day
(8). This report clearly indicates that methanol:
"is considered a cumulative poison
due to the low rate of excretion once it is absorbed.
In the body, methanol is oxidized to formaldehyde and
formic acid; both of these metabolites are toxic." (8)....
Recently the toxic role of formaldehyde (in methanol toxicity) has been
questioned (34). No skeptic can overlook the fact that, metabolically,
formaldehyde must be formed as an intermediate to formic acid
Formaldehyde has a high reactivity which may be why it
has not been found in humans or other primates during methanol
If formaldehyde is produced from methanol and does have a reasonable
half life within certain cells in the poisoned organism the chronic
toxicological ramifications could be grave.
Formaldehyde is a known
carcinogen (57) producing squamous-cell carcinomas by inhalation
exposure in experimental animals (22). The available epidemiological
studies do not provide adequate data for assessing the carcinogenicity
of formaldehyde in man (22, 24, 57).
However, reaction of formaldehyde
with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has resulted in irreversible
denaturation that could interfere with DNA replication and result in
Dr. J. Barua (ophthalmic surgeon), Dr. Arun Bal (surgeon)
Emerging facts about aspartame.
Journal Of The Diabetic Association Of India 1995; 35 (4):
(79 references) email@example.com
"...the total amount of methanol absorbed will be approximately
10% of aspartame ingested. An EPA assessment of methanol states
that methanol, 'is considered a cumulative poison due to the low rate
of excretion once it is absorbed. The absorbed methanol is then
slowly converted to formaldehyde...'"
"Reaction of formaldehyde with DNA has been observed,
by spectrophotometry and electron microscopy, to result in
"DKP has been implicated in the occurence of brain tumors."
aspartame harms mice brain cells: Hetle & Eltervaag: 2001 thesis
abstract: Sonnewald 1995 study, full text: Murray 1.5.3 rmforall
WebMD: Barclay: Barth:
survey shows aspartame hurts memory in students 11.9.00
Timothy M. Barth Department of Psychology firstname.lastname@example.org
Texas Christian University TCU Box 298920 Fort Worth, TX 76129
Chairman, Physiological Psychology 817-921-7410
Kovatsi L, Tsouggas M
The effect of oral aspartame administration on the
balance of magnesium in the rat.
Magnes Res 2001 Sep;14(3): 189-94.
Laboratory of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece email@example.com
aspartame, cell phones, brain cancer July 1999 Hardell:
Murray 1.9.3 rmforall
Lennart Hardell, M.D., PhD, in 1999 reported in Sweden that both
cell phone use and heavy aspartame use correlate with increased
brain cancers firstname.lastname@example.org +46 19 602 15 46
Murray: Wurtman: aspartame & seizures 11.9.85 10.30.99
Wurtman RJ Aspartame: possible effect on seizure susceptibility.
Lancet 1985 Nov 9; 2(8463): 1060.
Richard J. Wurtman, Ph.D. email@example.com 617-253-3091
Professor of Neuroscience
Prof. of Health Sciences and Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technlogy Cambridge, Mass. 02139
Murray: Drake: aspartame & panic attacks 9.13.86 10.30.99 rmforall
Miles E. Drake, MD
Panic attacks and excessive aspartame ingestion.
Lancet 1986 Sep 13; 2(8507): 631.
Department of Neurology and Psychiatry,
Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
http://www.truthinlabeling.org/ Truth in Labeling Campaign [MSG]
Adrienne Samuels, PhD The toxicity/safety of processed
free glutamic acid (MSG): a study in suppression of information.
Accountability in Research 1999; 6: 259-310. 52-page review
P.O. Box 2532 Darien, Illinois 60561
http://www.msgmyth.com/ Debby Anglesey <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Battling the "MSG Myth", A Survival Guide and Cookbook - $19.00
P.O. Box 895 Richland, WA 99352 509-735-3397
Lancet website aspartame letter 7.29.99:
Excitotoxins 1999 Part 1/3 Blaylock: Murray 1.14.0 rmforall
The Medical Sentinel Journal 1999 Fall; (95 references)
Russell L. Blaylock, MD 601-982-1175 Madison, Mississippi
http://www.bioterrorismbook.com/ "Bioterrorism: How You Can Survive"
Advanced Nutritional Concepts,LLC PO Box 2670 Ridgeland, MS 39158-2670
"Excitotoxins: The Taste that Kills", 1977, 298 p., 493 references.
"Health and Nutrition Secrets that can save your life", 2002, 459 p.,
558 + 30 references, $ 30 http://www.healthpress.com/
email@example.com PO Box 37470 Albuquerque, NM 87176
505-888-1394 fax 505-888-1521 Kathleen Frazier, Publisher
George R. Schwartz, MD "In Bad Taste: The MSG Syndrome", 1988, 123 p.
RTM: Merisant Co., MSD Capital, Dell Computer Corp., NutraSweet Co.,
JW Childs Assc.: aspartame-neotame toxicity 7.10.2 rmforall
http://www.dorway.com David O. Rietz over 12,000 print pages
Mission-Possible-USA Betty Martini 770-242-2599
http://www.dorway.com/asprlink.html many links
http://www.dorway.com/nslawsuit.txt Jeff Martin, Attorney
What many informed doctors are saying/have said about aspartame
Aspartame Toxicity Information Center Mark D. Gold
firstname.lastname@example.org 12 East Side Drive #2-18 Concord, NH 03301
"Scientific Abuse in Aspartame Research"
Aspartame Consumer Safety Network and Pilot Hotline [1987-2001]
Mary Nash Stoddard, Founder & President
P.O. Box 780634 Dallas, TX 75378 .
Toxicology Sourcebook: "Deadly Deception: Story of Aspartame"
RTM: Samuels: Strong: Roberts: Gold: flaws in double-blind studies re
aspartame and MSG toxicity 8.1.2 rmforall
"Survey of aspartame studies: correlation of outcome and funding
sources," 1998, unpublished: http://www.dorway.com/peerrev.html
Walton found 166 separate published studies in the peer reviewed
medical literature, which had relevance for questions of human safety.
The 74 studies funded by industry all (100%) attested to aspartame's
safety, whereas of the 92 non-industry funded studies, 84 (91%)
identified a problem. Six of the seven non-industry funded studies
that were favorable to aspartame safety were from the FDA, which
has a public record that shows a strong pro-industry bias.
Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern Ohio
Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown,
OH 44501, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240 Youngstown,
OH 44501 330-740-3621 email@example.com
http://google.com gives 133,000 websites for "aspartame" , while
http://groups.google.com/ finds on 700 MB of posts from 20-years of
Usenet groups, 75,700 posts, and
http://www.AllTheWeb.com gives 261,750, the top three being leading and
very well informed volunteer anti-aspartame sites.
http://teoma.com/index.asp gives 34,100 websites.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/ lists 719 aspartame items.
http://www.readthelabel.org.uk/ Additives Survivors' Network (UK)
http://www.aspartame.ca/ John T. Linnell firstname.lastname@example.org
Canadian Class Action Law Suit
RTM: 700.club.com: CBN:
Totheroh & Robertson: aspartame expose 2.13.2 rmforall
UK Daily Mirror Magazine: aspartame toxicity 2.18.2 rmforall
RTM: www.dorway.com: original documents and long reviews of flaws in
aspartame toxicity research 7.31.2 rmforall
safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF:
Murray 1.12.3 rmforall EU Scientific Committee on Food
aspartame expose 96K Oct 1987 Part 1/3: Gregory Gordon, UPI reporter:
Murray 7.10.0 rmforall
aspartame history Part 1/4 1964-1976: Gold: Murray 11.6.9: rmforall
Rumsfeld, 1977 head of Searle Corp., got aspartame FDA approval:
Turner: Murray 12.23.2 rmforall
revolving door, Monsanto, FDA, EPA: NGIN: Murray 12.23.2 rmforall
hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) in George and Barbara Bush, 1991--
aspartame toxicity? Roberts 1997: Murray 10.9.2 rmforall
re "dry drunk": Bisbort: danger to President Bush from aspartame
toxicity: Murray: 2.24.2 9.29.2 rmforall
http://www.vegsource.com extensive vegan information
Robert Kradjian MD Discusses Milk
Substitute saccharine and, even better, stevia (at health food stores).
Avoid all products with aspartame and MSG. Gradually reduce alcohol,
caffeine (coffee, cocoa, and teas), meat, fish, eggs, milk, butter, and
cheese, food additives and colors, fluoride, city water: enjoy organic
rice, beans, nuts, vegetables, fruits, with modest use of soy products
and sprouted grain breads, flax seed and olive oils, and fill your jugs
with deionized water.
Serious symptom syndrome summary:
Aspartame (NutraSweet, Equal, Canderel, Benevia) is reported by
scientific studies and case histories to be toxic: * headaches
* many body and joint pains (or burning, tingling, tremors, twitching,
spasms, cramps, or numbness) * fever, fatigue
* "mind fog", "feel unreal", poor memory, confusion, anxiety,
irritability, depression, mania, insomnia, dizziness, slurred speech,
ringing in ears, sexual problems, poor vision, hearing, or taste
* red face, itching, rashes, burning eyes or throat,
dry mouth or eyes, mouth sores * hair loss
* obesity, bloating, edema, anorexia,
poor or excessive hunger or thirst * breathing problems
* nausea, diarrhea or constipation * coldness * sweating
* racing heart, high blood pressure, erratic blood sugar levels
* seizures * birth defects * brain cancers * addiction
* aggrivates diabetes, autism, ADHD, allergies,
and interstitial cystitis (bladder pain)
http://www.aspartaam.nl/info/product.html Holland, in Dutch
Send blank post to: <br />aspartameNMemail@example.com to join<br />free,open, list with searchable archives for toxicity issues.<br />Richard \"Rich\" T. Murray Room For All 1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, NM 87505<br />firstname.lastname@example.org 505-501-2298