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  1. #1
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    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1114
    review of sweeteners 2004, Weihrauch MR, Diehl V: formaldehyde from 11%
    methanol component of aspartame, methanol in dark wines and liquors,
    fermentation of fruits in colon, also smoke, new buildings, furniture,
    drapes, carpets, personal products: available database from Harvard Nurses'
    Health Study II of 91,249 women in 1991-1999: Murray 2004.09.18 rmforall

    Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@comcast.net
    1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 USA 505-501-2298

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/messages
    131 members, 1,115 posts in a public searchable archive

    2004.09.17 This review by an unqualified, earnest medical layman, aims at
    providing simple information from recent mainstream research on the toxicity
    of formaldehyde. Here are a few summary remarks, backed up by the body of
    this post.

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1094
    the 11% methanol component of aspartame becomes formaldehyde, now ruled a
    carcinogen by WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer: Murray
    2004.06.16 rmforall

    Methanol toxicity results from the inevitable conversion within hours of
    much of it into formaldehyde and then formic acid, both potent, cumulative
    toxins that affect every tissue, and that in long-term chronic exposure are
    a major cause of hypersensitivity to formaldehyde and other chemicals.

    About the same amount of methanol exists as an impurity, about one part in
    ten thousand, in dark wines and liquors, stated by experts to be the major
    cause of the infamous "morning after" hangover: "thirst, headache, fatigue,
    nausea, sweating, tremor, remorse, and anxiety that hangover sufferers
    report...." Also, dizziness is common, along with vision and eye problems,
    irritability, impaired memory, "brain fog", aching joints and body pains,
    flushed skin.

    Jones AW (1987) found next-morning hangover from red wine with
    100 to 150 mg methanol
    (9.5% w/v ethanol; 100 mg/l methanol = 0.01%, one part in ten thousand).

    Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol -- 1,120 mg aspartame in 2 L diet soda,
    almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol) -- the same
    amount that produces hangover from red wine.

    "Between a quarter and a half of drinkers claim not to experience hangover
    symptoms despite having been intoxicated. (three citations)" This
    indicates a remarkable range of individual vulnerability to formaldehyde and
    formic acid exposure.

    Other strong formaldehyde sources are tobacco and wood smoke, and the
    particleboard and new furniture, carpet, and drapes especially concentrated
    in mobile homes. Many personal care products contain formaldehyde; for
    instance, leather shoes can cause foot dermatitis.

    Similar levels of methanol, and its inevitable products in the human body,
    formaldehyde and formic acid, can also ensue from fermentation of fruit
    pectins in the colon.

    The wide range of individual variability and the multitude of long-term,
    low-level sources renders statistical studies difficult. It is commonsense
    to consider seriously the multitudes of case reports of long-term heavy
    users who become aspartame reactors, and to focus research on the actual
    complex toxic biochemistry for long-term heavy exposure in vulnerable
    people.

    An available huge database exists in the Harvard Nurses' Health Study II.
    The diabetes analysis included 91,249 women free of diabetes and other major
    chronic diseases at baseline in 1991.
    The weight change analysis included 51,603 women for whom complete dietary
    information and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999.

    There were three questions on diet soft drinks
    ("low-calorie cola with caffeine,"
    "low-calorie caffeine-free cola,"
    and "other low-calorie beverages").

    We summed the intake of single items to create a total of sugar-sweetened
    soft drink, diet soft drink, and fruit juice consumption.

    The 9 possible responses, ranging from "never" to "6 or more times per day,"
    were aggregated into 4 categories
    (<1 drink per month, 1-4 drinks per month, 2-6 drinks per week, and 1 drink
    per day).

    Similar questionnaires were used to collect dietary information in 1995 and
    1999.

    The data for "6 or more times per day", rather than being averaged out with
    lower levels of use, should be studied for correlations with heavy alcohol
    use, high use of fruit, tobacco and wood smoke, mobile homes, other
    formaldehyde sources, MSG, carbon monoxide, VOCs, pesticides, heavy metals,
    and the many typical symptoms for hangovers and aspartame reactors:
    headaches, mental illnesses, seizures, dementia, accidents, crimes, suicide,
    infertility, miscarriages, birth defects, autism, asthma, sudden infant
    death syndrome, diabetes, cerebral palsy, allergies, Multiple Chemical
    Sensitivity, Multiple Sclerosis, Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,
    Attention Deficit Disorder, arthritis, dermatitis, thyroid diseases, liver
    diseases, obesity, heart diseases, stroke, cancers, vision problems,
    addictions, as well as any protective effects of folic acid, which
    facilitates the elimination of formaldehyde.

    This database might well be fully available and immediately searchable to
    test these associations.

    The automated Comet assay, fast, sensitive, and inexpensive, is a standard
    for assessment of DNA damage in any stored blood and tissue samples:

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/935
    Comet assay finds DNA damage from sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin in
    mice: Sasaki YF & Tsuda S Aug 2002: Murray 2003.01.01 rmforall
    [ Also borderline evidence, in this pilot study of 39 food additives,
    using test groups of 4 mice, for DNA damage from for stomach, colon,
    liver, bladder, and lung 3 hr after oral dose of 2000 mg/kg aspartame--
    a very high dose. Methanol is the only component of aspartame that can lead
    to DNA damage. ]
    ************************************************** ************
    Send blank post to: <br />aspartameNM-subscribe@onelist.com to join<br />free,open, list with searchable archives for toxicity issues.<br />Richard \"Rich\" T. Murray Room For All 1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, NM 87505<br />rmforall@comcast.net 505-501-2298

  2. #2
    Join Date
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    ************************************************** ************

    http://annonc.oupjournals.org/cgi/co...act/15/10/1460
    Annals of Oncology 2004; 15(10): 1460-1465; doi:10.1093/annonc/mdh256
    Articles by Weihrauch, M. R.
    Articles by Diehl, V.
    © 2004 European Society for Medical Oncology

    Review

    Artificial sweeteners-do they bear a carcinogenic risk?
    M. R. Weihrauch* and V. Diehl v.diehl@uni-koeln.de
    Department of Internal Medicine I of the University of Cologne, Cologne,
    Germany
    * Correspondence to: Dr M. R. Weihrauch, Immunologisches Labor Haus 16,
    Uniklinik Koeln, Joseph-Stelzmann-Strasse 9, 50924 Koeln, Germany. Tel:
    +49-221-4784488 Fax: +49-221-4785912 martin.weihrauch@uni-koeln.de

    Artificial sweeteners are added to a wide variety of food, drinks, drugs and
    hygiene products.
    Since their introduction, the mass media have reported about potential
    cancer risks, which has contributed to undermine the public's sense of
    security.
    It can be assumed that every citizen of Western countries uses artificial
    sweeteners, knowingly or not.
    A cancer-inducing activity of one of these substances would mean a health
    risk to an entire population.
    We performed several PubMed searches of the National Library of Medicine for
    articles in English about artificial sweeteners.
    These articles included 'first generation' sweeteners such as saccharin,
    cyclamate and aspartame, as well as 'new generation' sweeteners such as
    acesulfame-K, sucralose, alitame and neotame.
    Epidemiological studies in humans did not find the bladder cancer-inducing
    effects of saccharin and cyclamate that had been reported from animal
    studies in rats. Despite some rather unscientific assumptions, there is no
    evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic.
    Case-control studies showed an elevated relative risk of 1.3 for heavy
    artificial sweetener use (no specific substances specified) of &gt;1.7 g/day.
    For new generation sweeteners, it is too early to establish any
    epidemiological evidence about possible carcinogenic risks.
    As many artificial sweeteners are combined in today's products, the
    carcinogenic risk of a single substance is difficult to assess.
    However, according to the current literature, the possible risk of
    artificial sweeteners to induce cancer seems to be negligible. PMID:
    15367404
    Key words: aspartame, cancer, cyclamate, saccharin, sweeteners
    ************************************************** ************

    Med Klin (Munich). 2001 Nov 15;96(11):670-5.
    Erratum in:
    Med Klin 2002 Mar 15;97(3):173.
    [Artificial sweeteners--are they potentially carcinogenic?] [Article in
    German]
    Weihrauch MR, Diehl V, Bohlen H. martin.weihrauch@uni-koeln.de

    Klinik I fur Innere Medizin, Universitat zu Koln.

    BACKGROUND: Artificial sweeteners have rapidly evolved over the last 20
    years and are added to a broad variety of food, drinks, drugs, and hygiene
    products.
    Since their introduction, especially mass media have reported about
    potential cancer risks, which has attributed to undermine the people's sense
    of security.
    It can be assumed that every citizen of the western countries is using
    artificial sweeteners--knowingly or not.
    A cancer-inducing activity of one of these substances would mean a health
    risk to an entire population.
    STUDIES: This article gives an overview about the most important
    publications dealing with the cancerogenic potential of artificial
    sweeteners.
    Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 11760654
    ************************************************** ************
    Send blank post to: <br />aspartameNM-subscribe@onelist.com to join<br />free,open, list with searchable archives for toxicity issues.<br />Richard \"Rich\" T. Murray Room For All 1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, NM 87505<br />rmforall@comcast.net 505-501-2298

  3. #3
    Join Date
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    ************************************************** ************

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1106
    hangover research relevant to toxicity of 11% methanol in aspartame
    (formaldehyde, formic acid): Calder I (full text): Jones AW: also some
    methanol from fruit pectin in colon: Murray 2004.09.11 rmforall

    [ NutraSweet, Equal, Canderel, Benevia, E951 ]

    Since no adaquate data has ever been published on the exact disposition of
    the toxic metabolites, formaldehyde and formic acid, in specific tissues in
    humans of the readily released 11% methanol component of aspartame, the many
    studies on morning-after hangover from the methanol impurity in alcohol
    drinks are the main available resource to date.

    Jones AW (1987) found next-morning hangover from red wine with
    100 to 150 mg methanol
    (9.5% w/v ethanol; 100 mg/l methanol = 0.01%, one part in ten thousand).

    The expert review by Monte WC (1984) states: "An alcoholic consuming 1500
    calories a day from alcoholic sources alone may consume between 0 and 600 mg
    of methanol each day depending on his choice of beverages (Table 1)...."
    Table 1 lists red wine as having 128 mg/l methanol, about one part in ten
    thousand.

    Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol -- 1,120 mg aspartame in 2 L diet soda,
    almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol) -- the same
    amount that produces hangover from red wine.

    Other strong formaldehyde sources are tobacco and wood smoke, and the
    particleboard and new furniture, carpet, and drapes especially concentrated
    in mobile homes.

    Similar potent levels of methanol, and its inevitable products in the human
    body, formaldehyde and formic acid, can also ensue from fermentation of
    fruit pectins in the colon:

    Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997 Aug; 21(5): 939-43.
    Endogenous production of methanol after the consumption of fruit.
    Lindinger W, Taucher J, Jordan A, Hansel A, Vogel W.
    Institut fur Ionenphysik, Leopold Franzens Universitat Innsbruck, Austria.

    After the consumption of fruit, the concentration of methanol in the human
    body increases by as much as an order of magnitude.
    This is due to the degradation of natural pectin (which is esterified with
    methyl alcohol) in the human colon.
    In vivo tests performed by means of proton-transfer-reaction mass
    spectrometry show that consumed pectin in either a pure form (10 to 15 g)
    or a natural form (in 1 kg of apples) induces a significant increase of
    methanol in the breath (and by inference in the blood) of humans.
    The amount generated from pectin (0.4 to 1.4 mg)
    is approximately equivalent to the total daily endogenous production
    (measured to be 0.3 to 0.6 mg/day)
    or that obtained from 0.3 liters of 80-proof brandy
    (calculated to be 0.5 mg).
    [ typos corrected, g actually is mg for ethanol, methanol ]
    This dietary pectin may contribute to the development
    of nonalcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. PMID: 9267548

    Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1995 Oct; 19(5): 1147-50.
    Methanol in human breath.
    Taucher J, Lagg A, Hansel A, Vogel W, Lindinger W.
    Institut fur Ionenphysik, Universitat Innsbruck, Austria.

    Using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry for trace gas analysis of
    the human breath, the concentrations of methanol and ethanol have been
    measured for various test persons consuming alcoholic beverages and various
    amounts of fruits, respectively.
    The methanol concentrations increased from a natural (physiological) level
    of approximately 0.4 ppm up to approximately 2 ppm a few hours after eating
    about 1/2 kg of fruits,
    and about the same concentration was reached after drinking of 100 ml brandy
    containing 24% volume of ethanol and 0.19% volume of methanol.
    [ 24 ml = 64 mg ethanol and 0.19 ml = 0.33 mg methanol ] PMID: 8561283

    These three potent dietary sources of methanol, formaldehyde, and formic
    acid, which impact many people, and cause the same symptoms in vulnerable
    and sensitized people, are ignored in the following prestigious, official
    source:

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1108
    faults in 1999 July EPA 468-page formaldehyde profile:
    Elzbieta Skrzydlewska PhD, Assc. Prof., Medical U. of Bialystok, Poland,
    abstracts -- ethanol, methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetaldehyde,
    lipid peroxidation, green tea, aging, Lyme disease:
    Murray 2004.08.08 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1109
    Toxicological Profile for Formaldehyde 1/4 plain text, start to 111 of 468
    pages USA DHHS PHS ATSDR 1999 July: Murray 2004.08.30 rmforall

    An editorial review by Ian Calder, F.R.C.A., "Hangovers: not the ethanol--
    perhaps the methanol", British Medical Journal 1997 Jan 4; 314(7073): 2
    [ Tel/Fax: 0171 720 9279 Consultant Anaesthetist at the National Hospital
    for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London WCIN 3BG, UK ]
    http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/search.dtl search to get free full text ] ,
    states:

    "In fact, ethanol itself may play only a minor part in producing the thirst,
    headache, fatigue, nausea, sweating, tremor, remorse, and anxiety that
    hangover sufferers report.... [ Also, dizziness is common. ]

    "Between a quarter and a half of drinkers claim not to experience hangover
    symptoms despite having been intoxicated. (three citations)"

    The symptom list is similar to reports by aspartame reactors.

    If only a fraction of aspartame users happen to be vulnerable to the
    methanol, that would account well for the disbelief by those who are not
    aspartame reactors, as well as the scientific difficulty in proving
    aspartame toxicity in the general population.

    Research can study whether the hangover prone are also vulnerable to
    aspartame, methanol, formaldehyde, and formic acid, and determine the
    specific biochemistry for different groups.

    Hangover treatments may help aspartame reactors. For instance, adaquate
    folic acid (folate) helps humans eliminate toxic products from methanol.

    Reprod Toxicol. 1996 Nov-Dec; 10(6): 455-63.
    Influence of dietary folic acid on the developmental toxicity of methanol
    and the frequency of chromosomal breakage in the CD-1 mouse.
    Fu SS, Sakanashi TM, Rogers JM, Hong KH, Keen CL.
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616, USA.

    "These results show that marginal folate deficiency in pregnant dams
    significantly increases the teratogenicity of MeOH." PMID: 8946559

    There are no reports of hangover from heavy use of orange juice, 34 mg/l
    methanol, since the methanol in many fruits and vegetables is locked up in
    complex pectin molecules, not released by human digestion. (Monte WC 1984)

    I've never found any reports by aspartame reactors, who are often sensitive
    even to a single breath mint or stick of chewing gum
    (0.4 to 0.8 mg methanol),
    of having the same symptoms from fruits or vegetables.

    Pharmacol Toxicol. 1987 Mar; 60(3): 217-20.
    Elimination half-life of methanol during hangover.
    Jones AW.
    Department of Forensic Toxicology, University Hospital, SE-581 85 Linkoping,
    Sweden. wayne.jones@RMV.se

    This paper reports the elimination half-life of methanol in human
    volunteers. Experiments were made during the morning after the subjects had
    consumed 1000-1500 ml red wine (9.5% w/v ethanol, 100 mg/l methanol)
    the previous evening. [ 100 to 150 mg methanol ]
    The washout of methanol from the body coincided with the onset of hangover.
    The concentrations of ethanol and methanol in blood were determined
    indirectly by analysis of end-expired alveolar air.
    In the morning when blood-ethanol dropped below the Km of liver alcohol
    dehydrogenase (ADH) of about 100 mg/l (2.2 mM), the disappearance half-life
    of ethanol was 21, 22, 18 and 15 min. in 4 test subjects respectively.
    The corresponding elimination half-lives of methanol were 213, 110, 133 and
    142 min. in these same individuals.
    The experimental design outlined in this paper can be used to obtain useful
    data on elimination kinetics of methanol in human volunteers without undue
    ethical limitations.
    Circumstantial evidence is presented to link methanol or its toxic metabolic
    products, formaldehyde and formic acid, with the pathogenesis of hangover.
    PMID: 3588516

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1047
    Avoiding Hangover Hell 2003.12.31 Mark Sherman, AP writer:
    Robert Swift, MD [ formaldehyde from methanol in aspartame ]:
    Murray 2004.01.16 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1048
    hangovers from formaldehyde from methanol (aspartame?):
    Schwarcz: Linsley: Murray 2004.01.18

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1099
    Diagnose-Me.com: formaldehyde from 11 % methanol part of aspartame:
    recent abstracts for methanol and hangovers: Murray 2004.07.10 rmforall

    http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/search.dtl search to get free full text
    British Medial Journal 1997 (4 January); 314(7073): 2.
    Ian Calder, F.R.C.A. [ Tel/Fax: 0171 720 9279 Consultant Anaesthetist at
    the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery,
    London WCIN 3BG, UK ]

    Editorials Hangovers: Not the ethanol - perhaps the methanol

    "Wine is only sweet to happy men," wrote an unhappy John Keats to his
    sweetheart.(1) His observation seems to have been vindicated.

    Harburg et al found that psychosocial factors such as guilt about drinking,
    a neurotic personality, becoming angry or depressed while drinking, and
    having suffered "negative life events" in the past 12 months are better
    predictors of symptoms of hangover than the amount of ethanol drunk.(2)

    In fact, ethanol itself may play only a minor part in producing the thirst,
    headache, fatigue, nausea, sweating, tremor, remorse, and anxiety that
    hangover sufferers report.
    Hangover symptoms are worst at a time when almost all ethanol and its
    metabolite acetaldehyde have been cleared from the blood, and peak blood
    ethanol or acetaldehyde levels are not related to the severity of
    hangover.(3 )

    Between a quarter and a half of drinkers claim not to experience hangover
    symptoms despite having been intoxicated.(2, 3, 4)

    Congeners - complex organic molecules such as polyphenols, higher alcohols
    including methanol, and histamine, which occur in varying amounts in
    ethanolic drinks - are probably more to blame than ethanol.

    Chapman found that hangover symptoms were almost twice as common in
    volunteers who drank 1.5 ml/kg [ body weight ] of bourbon whiskey - which
    has methanol concentrations of 26 mg/l - as in those drinking the same dose
    of vodka ( 3.9 mg of methanol per litre ). (5) [ For a 60 kg person, this
    would be 90 mg bourbon, 0.09 l, giving 2.34 mg methanol, which led to twice
    as many symptoms as the 0.35 mg methanol from vodka. The bourbon gave as
    about as much methanol as an ounce of diet soda. ]

    Pawan compared the hangover produced by different types of drink (but only
    one brand of each) in his study of 20 volunteers. The severity of hangover
    symptoms declined in the order of brandy, red wine, rum, whisky, white wine,
    gin, vodka, and pure ethanol.(6) Vodka and pure ethanol caused only mild
    headaches in two volunteers.

    Jones has suggested that it is the metabolism of methanol to formaldehyde
    and formic acid that causes symptoms of hangover, with quicker methanol
    metabolisers suffering more.(7) The justification for this suggestion is
    threefold:
    the types of drink associated with more severe hangovers contain higher
    levels of methanol;
    the time course of methanol metabolism corresponds to the onset of symptoms;
    and a small dose of ethanol, which blocks the formation of formaldehyde and
    formic acid, provides an effective treatment for hangovers ("the hair of the
    dog").

    The economic and social consequences of hangovers are probably considerable
    but difficult to quantify. Performance accuracy is impaired synergistically
    by sleep deprivation and hangover.(8)
    Drivers perform less well in simulators when tested the morning after
    drinking ethanol.(9)
    Making driving with a hangover a criminal offence might be logical, but is
    probably impractical in the absence of a simple diagnostic test like breath
    alcohol.

    Many pathophysiological disturbances occur during hangover, including
    dehydration; metabolic acidosis; hypoglycaemia; disturbed prostaglandin
    synthesis; abnormal secretion of vasopressin, cortisol, aldosterone,
    renin, and testosterone; increased cardiac output; tachycardia; and
    vasodilatation.

    Hypoglycaemia and acidosis can be treated with fructose or glucose,(9) and
    the cardiovascular abnormalities with ß blockade,(10) but symptoms are not
    alleviated.
    However, rehydration and anti-inflammatory analgesics are helpful,
    particularly if treatment is started before bedtime.(11)

    A completely effective treatment is probably unattainable (since so many
    factors - such as lack of sleep, active or passive smoking, dietary
    indiscretions, unaccustomed physical activity, intermittent upper airway
    obstruction, and emotional disturbances - must play a part) and is arguably
    undesirable since the fear of hangover prompts most people to moderate their
    ethanol intake.(4 )

    Even moderate amounts of ethanol can be damaging,(12) so a penalty for
    consumption is in our interests. Perhaps those who aspire to be one of Dr
    Johnson's "heroes" by drinking brandy (13) are sensible as well as brave.

    Ian Calder, Consultant anaesthetist, Department of Neuroanaesthesia,
    National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery,
    Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG UK

    1. Keats J. Letter to Fanny Brawne. In: Tripp RT, ed. The international
    thesaurus of quotations. England: Penguin, 1976: 266.

    2. Harburg E, Gunn R, Gleiberman L, DiFranceisco W, Schork A.
    Psychosocial factors, alcohol use and hangover signs among social drinkers:
    a reappraisal.
    J Clin Epidemiol 1993; 46: 413-22. [Medline]

    3. Ylikahri RH, Huttunen M, Eriksson CJ, Nikkila EA.
    Metabolic studies on the pathogenesis of hangover.
    Eur J Clin Invest 1974; 4: 93-100.

    4. Smith CM, Barnes GM.
    Signs and symptoms of hangover; prevalence and relationship to alcohol use
    in a generally adult population.
    Drug Alcohol Depend 1983; 11: 249-69. [Medline]

    5. Chapman LF.
    Experimental induction of hangover.
    Q J Stud Alcohol 1970; 5: 67-85. [Medline]

    6. Pawan GLS.
    Alcoholic drinks and hangover effects.
    Proc Nutr Soc 1973; 32: 15A.

    7. Jones AW.
    Elimination half-life of methanol during hangover.
    Pharmacol Toxicol 1987; 60; 217-20.

    8. Peeke SC, Callaway E, Jones RT, Stone GC, Doyle J.
    Combined effect of alcohol and sleep deprivation in normal young adults.
    Psychopharmacol 1980; 67: 279-87. [Medline]

    9. Seppala T, Leino T, Linnoila M, Huttunen MO, Ylikahri RH.
    Effects of hangover on psychomotor skills related to driving: modification
    by fructose and glucose.
    Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 1976; 38: 209-18.

    10. Bogin RM, Nostrant TT, Young MJ.
    Propranolol for the treatment of the alcoholic hangover.
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1986; 12: 279-84.

    11. Khan MA, Jensen K, Krogh HJ.
    Alcohol induced hangover. A double blind comparison of pyritinol and placebo
    in preventing hangover symptoms.
    Q J Stud Alcohol 1973; 34: 1195-201. [Medline]

    12. Karhunen PJ, Erkinjuntti T, Laippala P.
    Moderate alcohol consumption and loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells.
    BMJ 1994; 308: 1663-7.

    13. Boswell J.
    Life of Johnson. April 7th 1779. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1970.

    This article has been cited by other articles:

    M. H. Pittler, A. R. White, C. Stevinson, and E. Ernst.
    Effectiveness of artichoke extract in preventing alcohol-induced hangovers:
    a randomized controlled trial
    Can. Med. Assoc. J., December 9, 2003; 169(12): 1269 - 1273.
    [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

    W. T Thompson, M. E Cupples, C. H Sibbett, D. I Skan, and T. Bradley.
    Challenge of culture, conscience, and contract to general practitioners'
    care of their own health: qualitative study
    BMJ, September 29, 2001; 323(7315): 728 - 731.
    [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

    © 2004 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd
    ************************************************** ************
    Send blank post to: <br />aspartameNM-subscribe@onelist.com to join<br />free,open, list with searchable archives for toxicity issues.<br />Richard \"Rich\" T. Murray Room For All 1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, NM 87505<br />rmforall@comcast.net 505-501-2298

  4. #4
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    Post

    ************************************************** ************

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1100
    research on aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity:
    Murray 2004.09.17 rmforall

    [ NutraSweet, Equal, Canderel, Benevia, E951 ]

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/927
    Donald Rumsfeld, 1977 head of Searle Corp., got aspartame FDA approval:
    Turner: Murray 2002.12.23 rmforall

    A very detailed, highly credible account of the dubious approval process for
    aspartame in July, 1981 is part of the just released two-hour documentary
    "Sweet Misery, A Poisoned World: An Industry Case Study of a Food Supply
    In Crisis" by Cori Brackett: cori@soundandfuryproductions.com
    http://www.soundandfuryproductions.com/ 520-624-9710
    2301 East Broadway, Suite 111 Tucson, AZ 85719

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/messages
    131 members, 1,115 posts in a public searchable archive

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartame/messages
    838 members, 17,402 posts in a public, searchable archive

    Poor memory is one of the main early complaints of aspartame reactors, who
    are often people who use over 6 cans ( 2 L) diet soda daily for years.

    The 6 experimental rats in this recent economical, focused pilot study by
    McConnaughey M et al (2004 May), drank a comparable level for 4 months,
    about 13% of a 30-month lifespan. It is an excellent introduction to the
    main issues.

    Only after 3 months did the 6 aspartame rats show almost a doubling of time
    to run a single-choice maze.

    At 4 months, there was almost another doubling of delay: "...two of the
    treated rats even went to the wrong side of the T-maze, totally forgetting
    where the reward was." These are very powerful, worrisome results.

    There were highly significant, neurologically relevant changes in certain
    brain receptor densities, and changes in brain chemistry.

    With 70 citations, the relevant scientific literature is well summarized.
    Many other studies, often industry funded, often used single doses or
    too short durations of exposure, along with lower doses, thus rarely proving
    memory deficits.

    The funding source for this extremely valuable study is not given.
    It used a team of talented high school students.

    The fact that certain brain receptor densitities increased, and that memory
    deficit increase took 3 months to be significant, may reflect the paradox of
    hormesis, the complex ability of organisms to make themselves stronger in
    response to low levels of toxins:

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1055
    hormesis: possible benefits of low-level aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde)
    use: Calabrese: Soffritti: Murray 2004.03.11 rmforall

    The most toxic part of the fragile aspartame molecule is its 11% methanol
    component.

    It is an open secret, admitted in a number of published studies for three
    decades, that methanol is converted within hours by the liver into
    formaldehyde and formic acid, both potent, cumulative toxins that affect all
    cell types.

    Few know that the classic "morning after" hangover from dark wines and
    liquors is largely due to formaldehyde and formic acid from methanol
    contamination, not the ethanol itself.

    The actual disposition of these toxins in the tissues of human aspartame
    reactors has never been determined, or, if determined, never publicly
    published.

    The study should be replicated, using methanol, formaldehyde, and formic
    acid to verify if the same results obtain.

    If blood and tissue samples have been stored, then the fast, cheap,
    automated, highly sensitive Comet assay, often used to prove DNA damage from
    formaldehyde, can be used to replicate the results by Yu F. Sakaki (2002),
    whose intripid and much published team in Japan has found DNA damage,
    testing 8 tissues from single non-lethal doses of aspartame
    (near-significant high levels of DNA damage in 5 tissues) and 38 other
    additives in groups of just 4 mice:

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/935
    Comet assay finds DNA damage from sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin in
    mice: Sasaki YF & Tsuda S Aug 2002: Murray 2003.01.01 rmforall
    [ Also borderline evidence, in this pilot study of 39 food additives,
    using test groups of 4 mice, for DNA damage from for stomach, colon,
    liver, bladder, and lung 3 hr after oral dose of 2000 mg/kg aspartame--
    a very high dose. Methanol is the only component of aspartame that can lead
    to DNA damage. ]

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1108
    faults in 1999 July EPA 468-page formaldehyde profile:
    Elzbieta Skrzydlewska PhD, Assc. Prof., Medical U. of Bialystok, Poland,
    abstracts -- ethanol, methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetaldehyde,
    lipid peroxidation, green tea, aging, Lyme disease:
    Murray 2004.08.08 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1088
    Murray, full plain text & critique:
    chronic aspartame in rats affects memory, brain cholinergic receptors, and
    brain chemistry, Christian B, McConnaughey M et al, 2004 May:
    2004.06.05 rmforall

    Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004 May; 78(1): 121-7.
    Chronic aspartame affects T-maze performance, brain cholinergic receptors
    and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in rats.
    Christian B, McConnaughey K, Bethea E, Brantley S, Coffey A, Hammond L,
    Harrell S, Metcalf K, Muehlenbein D, Spruill W, Brinson L, McConnaughey M.
    Department of Pharmacology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina
    University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA;
    North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics, Durham, NC 27811.
    http://www.ecu.edu/pharmacology/facu...onnaughey.html
    Mona M. McConnaughey, Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor
    Department: PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY
    Office: Brody Medical Science 6E-120A 252-744-2756
    MCCONNAUGHEYM@mail.ecu.edu

    This study demonstrated that chronic aspartame consumption in rats can lead
    to altered T-maze performance and increased muscarinic cholinergic receptor
    densities in certain brain regions.
    Control and treated rats were trained in a T-maze to a particular side and
    then periodically tested to see how well they retained the learned response.
    Rats that had received aspartame (250 mg/kg/day) in the drinking water for 3
    or 4 months showed a significant increase in time to reach the reward in the
    T-maze, suggesting a possible effect on memory due to the artificial
    sweetener. Using [(3)H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) (1 nM) to label
    muscarinic cholinergic receptors and atropine (10(-6) M) to determine
    nonspecific binding in whole-brain preparations,
    aspartame-treated rats showed a 31% increase in receptor numbers when
    compared to controls.
    In aspartame-treated rats, there was a significant increase in muscarinic
    receptor densities in the frontal cortex, midcortex, posterior cortex,
    hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebellum of 80%, 60%, 61%, 65%,
    66% and 60%, respectively.
    The midbrain was the only area where preparations from aspartame-treated
    rats showed a significant increase in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity.
    It can be concluded from these data that long-term consumption of aspartame
    can affect T-maze performance in rats and alter receptor densities or
    enzymes in brain. PMID: 15159141

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1067
    eyelid contact dermatitis by formaldehyde from aspartame, AM Hill & DV
    Belsito, Nov 2003: Murray 2004.03.30 rmforall [ 150 KB ]

    "A 60-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 6-month history of eyelid
    dermatitis...

    By strictly avoiding formaldehyde and all formaldehyde releasers for the
    next 3 weeks, she improved only slightly.

    Her problem, however, was subsequently solved when a local pharmacist
    advised her to avoid aspartame.

    She had begun using an aspartame-based artificial sweetener 5 months prior
    to the onset of her dermatitis. [ 12 months of low-level aspartame use until
    stopping. ]

    Within 1 week of discontinuing the aspartame, her eyelid dermatitis resolved
    completely and has not recurred over 18 months without specific
    treatment....

    Our patient was consuming an average of 80 mg (1.13 mg/kg) of aspartame
    daily, well below the levels previously studied."

    [ A packet of tabletop sweetener gives 37 mg aspartame, while a 12 oz diet
    soda gives 200 mg aspartame. An aspartame reactor can have immediate strong
    symtoms from an under-the-tongue wafer with 4 mg aspartame. ]

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1039
    three-page review: aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde) toxicity:
    Murray 2003.11.22 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1026
    brief aspartame review: formaldehyde toxicity: Murray 2003.09.11 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1025
    aspartame & formaldehyde toxicity: Murray 2003.09.09 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1094
    the 11% methanol component of aspartame becomes formaldehyde, now ruled a
    carcinogen by WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer: Murray
    2004.06.16 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1084
    26 stevia safety abstracts since 1993: aspartame vs stevia debate on
    alt.support.diabetes, George Schmidt, OD: Murray 2004.05.25 rmforall

    A Searle Laboratories team in 1976 reported that in 4 monkeys fed aspartame,
    by 12 hours: "...the major fraction (70%) of the [aspartate] label appeared
    in the expired air (Fig.6)...Urinary and fecal 14C [ aspartate derived ]
    amounted to 4--6% of the administered [ aspartate ] label."

    This gives a total of a maximum 76% excreted aspartate from the aspartame,
    indicating that 24% of this excitotoxin was retained in the body. It is
    reasonable to conclude that daily use of aspartame must lead to substantial
    accumulation of this excitotoxin, aspartate, in body tissues.

    Their 1979 review said: "Aspartame... is hydrolyzed in the gut to yield
    aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol....
    Aspartate may also be incorporated into body constitutents such as other
    amino acids, proteins, pyrimidines, asparagine, and N-acetylaspartic acid."

    J Environ Pathol Toxicol. 1979 Mar-Apr; 2(4): 979-85.
    A review of the metabolism of the aspartyl moiety of aspartame in
    experimental animals and man.
    Ranney RE, Oppermann JA.
    Department of Drug Metabolism and Radiochemistry, Searle Laboratories,
    Skokie, Illinois. Division of G.D. Searle and Co. Box 5110, Chicago, IL
    60680

    Aspartame (3-amino-N-(alpha-carboxyphenethyl) succinamic acid, methyl ester;
    the methyl ester of aspartylphenylalanine, SC-18862) is hydrolyzed in the
    gut to yield aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol.
    This review of the literature describes the metabolic paths followed by
    aspartate in its conversion to CO2 or its incorporation into body
    constituents. About 70 percent of 14C from [asp-14C]-aspartame is converted
    in the monkey to 14CO2.
    Some of the aspartate is converted at the intestinal mucosal level to
    alanine by decarboxylation.
    This amino acid may be oxidized to CO2 by entering the tricarboxylic acid
    cycle via pyruvate and acetyl CoA.
    In addition, transamination of aspartate to oxaloacetate permits this
    product also to enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
    Aspartate may also be incorporated into body constitutents such as other
    amino acids, proteins, pyrimidines, asparagine, and N-acetylaspartic acid.
    It is concluded that the aspartate moiety of aspartame is metabolized in a
    manner similar to that of dietary aspartic acid.
    Publication Types: Review PMID: 376770

    It is certain that high levels of aspartame use, above 2 liters daily for
    months and years, must lead to chronic formaldehyde-formic acid toxicity.

    Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol-- 1,120 mg aspartame in 2 L diet soda,
    almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol).
    The methanol is immediately released into the body after drinking--
    unlike the large levels of methanol locked up in complex molecules inside
    many fruits and vegetables.
    Within hours, the liver turns much of the methanol into formaldehyde, and
    then much of that into formic acid, both of which in time are partially
    eliminated as carbon dioxide and water.

    However, about 30% of the methanol remains in the body as cumulative
    durable toxic metabolites of formaldehyde and formic acid-- 37 mg daily,
    a gram every month, accumulating in and affecting every tissue.

    If only 10% of the methanol is retained daily as formaldehyde, that would
    give 12 mg daily formaldehyde accumulation-- about 60 times more than the
    0.2 mg from 10% retention of the 2 mg EPA daily limit for formaldehyde in
    drinking water.

    Bear in mind that the EPA limit for formaldehyde in drinking water is
    1 ppm, or 2 mg daily for a typical daily consumption of 2 L of water.

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/835
    ATSDR: EPA limit 1 ppm formaldehyde in drinking water July 1999:
    Murray 2002.05.30 rmforall

    This long-term low-level chronic toxic exposure leads to typical patterns of
    increasingly severe complex symptoms, starting with headache, fatigue, joint
    pain, irritability, memory loss, rashes, and leading to vision and eye
    problems, and even seizures. In many cases there is addiction. Probably
    there are immune system disorders, with a hypersensitivity to these toxins
    and other chemicals.

    J. Nutrition 1973 Oct; 103(10): 1454-1459.
    Metabolism of aspartame in monkeys.
    Oppermann JA, Muldoon E, Ranney RE.
    Dept. of Biochemistry, Searle Laboratories,
    Division of G.D. Searle and Co. Box 5110, Chicago, IL 60680
    They found that about 70% of the radioactive methanol in aspartame put into
    the stomachs of 3 to 7 kg monkeys was eliminated within 8 hours, with little
    additional elimination, as carbon dioxide in exhaled air and as water in
    the urine. They did not mention that this meant that about 30% of the
    methanol must transform into formaldehyde and then into formic acid, both of
    which must remain as toxic products in all parts of the body.
    They did not report any studies on the distribution of radioactivity in body
    tissues, except that blood plasma proteins after 4 days held 4% of the
    initial methanol. This study did not monitor long-term use of aspartame.

    The low oral dose of aspartame and for methanol was 0.068 mmol/kg, about 1
    part per million [ppm] of the acute toxicity level of 2,000 mg/kg, 67,000
    mmol/kg, used by McMartin (1979).
    Two L daily use of diet soda provides 123 mg methanol, 2 mg/kg for a 60 kg
    person, a dose of 67 mmole/kg, a thousand times more than the dose in this
    study. By eight hours excretion of the dose in air and urine had leveled off
    at 67.1 +-2.1% as CO2 in the exhaled air and 1.57+-0.32% in the urine,
    so 68.7% was excreted, and 31.3% was retained.
    This data is the average of 4 monkeys.
    "...the 14C in the feces was negligible."

    "That fraction not so excreted (about 31%) was converted to body
    constituents through the one-carbon metabolic pool."
    "All radioactivity measurements were counted to +-1% accuracy..."
    This indicates that the results could not be claimed to have a precision of
    a tenth of a percent. OK, so this is a nit-pick-- but I believe espousing
    spurious accuracy is a sign of scientific insecurity.

    The abstract ends,
    "It was concluded that aspartame was digested to its three constituents that
    were then absorbed as natural constituents of the diet.
    Thus, the concept is very subtly insinuated that methanol, as a constituent
    of aspartame, is absorbed as a natural constituent of the diet."
    "Dietary methanol is derived in large part from fresh fruits and
    vegetables."
    This is a serious error, since the large amounts of methanol in fresh
    fruits and vegetables, locked up in complex pectin molecules, are not
    released by normal human digestion. ( Monte WC, 1984) Nowhere in this
    report are mentioned the dread words, "formaldehyde" and "formic acid".

    Of course, methanol and formaldehyde toxicity studies are highly relevant to
    the issue of aspartame toxicity. [ Aspartame has to be turned into its
    toxic products, formaldehyde and formic acid, in the body, before it is
    toxic, so some pro-aspartame reseach studies test aspartame outside the
    body, and then proclaim that they have proved that it is not toxic. ]

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/915
    formaldehyde toxicity: Thrasher & Kilburn: Shaham: EPA: Gold:
    Wilson: CIIN: Murray 2002.12.12 rmforall

    Thrasher (2001): "The major difference is that the Japanese demonstrated
    the incorporation of FA and its metabolites into the placenta and fetus.
    The quantity of radioactivity remaining in maternal and fetal tissues
    at 48 hours was 26.9% of the administered dose." [ Ref. 14-16 ]

    Arch Environ Health 2001 Jul-Aug; 56(4): 300-11.
    Embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of formaldehyde. [100 references]
    Thrasher JD, Kilburn KH. toxicology@drthrasher.org
    Sam-1 Trust, Alto, New Mexico, USA.
    http://www.drthrasher.org/formaldehy..._toxicity.html full text

    http://www.drthrasher.org/formaldehyde_1990.html full text Jack Dwayne
    Thrasher, Alan Broughton, Roberta Madison. Immune activation and
    autoantibodies in humans with long-term inhalation exposure to formaldehyde.
    Archives of Environmental Health. 1990; 45: 217-223. "Immune activation,
    autoantibodies, and anti-HCHO-HSA antibodies are associated with long-term
    formaldehyde inhalation." PMID: 2400243

    Confirming evidence and a general theory are given by Pall (2002):
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/909
    testable theory of MCS type diseases, vicious cycle of nitric oxide &
    peroxynitrite: MSG: formaldehyde-methanol-aspartame:
    Martin L. Pall: Murray: 2002.12.09 rmforall

    Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Sep; 111(12): 1461-4.
    Elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite theory of multiple chemical sensitivity:
    central role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the sensitivity mechanism.
    Pall ML.
    School of Molecular Biosciences, 301 Abelson Hall, Washington State
    University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA. martin_pall@wsu.edu

    The elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite and the neural sensitization
    theories of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) are extended here to propose
    a central mechanism for the exquisite sensitivity to organic solvents
    apparently induced by previous chemical exposure in MCS.
    This mechanism is centered on the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)
    receptors by organic solvents producing elevated nitric oxide and
    peroxynitrite, leading in turn to increased stimulating of and
    hypersensitivity of NMDA receptors.
    In this way, organic solvent exposure may produce progressive sensitivity to
    organic solvents.
    Pesticides such as organophosphates and carbamates may act via muscarinic
    stimulation to produce a similar biochemical and sensitivity response.
    Accessory mechanisms of sensitivity may involve both increased blood-brain
    barrier permeability, induced by peroxynitrite, and cytochrome P450
    inhibition by nitric oxide.
    The NMDA hyperactivity/hypersensitivity and excessive nitric
    oxide/peroxynitrite view of MCS provides answers to many of the most
    puzzling aspects of MCS while building on previous studies and views of this
    condition. PMID: 12948884

    Prof. Pall describes processes by which an initial trigger exposure, such as
    carbon monoxide or formaldehyde, can generate hypersensitivity to many
    substances. He himself had recovered from a sudden, debilitating attack of
    multiple chemical sensitivity in June/July 1997.

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1055
    hormesis: possible benefits of low-level aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde)
    use: Calabrese: Soffritti: Murray 2004.03.11 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1056
    disorders of NMDA glutamate receptors in brain range from high activity
    (MCS, CF, PTSD, FM, from carbon monoxide or formaldehyde (methanol,
    aspartame)-- Pall)
    to low activity (schizophrenia-- Coyle, Goff, Javitts):
    Murray 2004.03.13 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1090
    aspartame, MSG, excitotoxins, NMDA glutamate receptors, multiple sclerosis:
    Blaylock: Martini: Murray 2004.06.09 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/97
    Lancet website aspartame letter 1999.07.29:
    Excitotoxins 1999 Part 1/3 Blaylock: Murray 2000.01.14 rmforall
    The Medical Sentinel Journal 1999 Fall; (95 references)
    http://www.dorway.com/blayenn.html

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/946
    Functional Therapeutics in Neurodegenerative Disease Part 1/2:
    Perlmutter 1999.07.15: Murray 2003.01.10 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1034
    Brain cell damage from amino acid isolates (aspartame releases
    phenylalanine, aspartate, methanol [formaldehyde, formic acid] Bowen &
    Evangelista May 6 2002: Murray 2003.11.10 rmforall

    http://www.aspartame.ca/Brain%20Cell%20Damage.pdf
    Brain cell damage from amino acid isolates 5.6.2 41 references
    detailed 22 page review by James D. Bowen, MD and Arthur M. Evangelista,
    former FDA Investigator orwilly@msn.com

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/628
    Professional House Doctors: Singer: EPA: CPSC:
    formaldehyde toxicity: Murray 2001.06.10 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1052
    DMDC: Dimethyl dicarbonate 200mg/L in drinks adds methanol 98 mg/L
    ( becomes formaldehyde in body ): EU Scientific Committee on Foods
    2001.07.12: Murray 2004.01.22 rmforall
    Send blank post to: <br />aspartameNM-subscribe@onelist.com to join<br />free,open, list with searchable archives for toxicity issues.<br />Richard \"Rich\" T. Murray Room For All 1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, NM 87505<br />rmforall@comcast.net 505-501-2298

  5. #5
    Join Date
    Jun 1999
    Location
    Santa Fe, NM 87505, USA
    Posts
    63

    Post

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/782
    RTM: Smith, Terpening, Schmidt, Gums:
    full text: aspartame, MSG, fibromyalgia 2002.01.17 rmforall
    Jerry D Smith, Chris M Terpening, Siegfried OF Schmidt, and John G Gums
    Relief of Fibromyalgia Symptoms Following
    Discontinuation of Dietary Excitotoxins.
    The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2001; 35(6): 702-706.
    Malcolm Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville, FL, USA.
    BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a common rheumatologic disorder that is
    often difficult to treat effectively.
    CASE SUMMARY: Four patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome
    for two to 17 years are described.
    All had undergone multiple treatment
    modalities with limited success. All had complete, or nearly complete,
    resolution of their symptoms within months after eliminating monosodium
    glutamate (MSG) or MSG plus aspartame from their diet.
    All patients were women with multiple comorbidities
    prior to elimination of MSG.
    All have had recurrence of symptoms whenever MSG is ingested.

    Siegfried O. Schmidt, MD Asst. Clinical Prof. siggy@shands.ufl.edu
    Community Health and Family Medicine, U. Florida, Gainesville, FL
    Shands Hospital West Oak Clinic Gainesville, FL 32608-3629
    352-376-5071

    http://www.perque.com/ info@perque.com 800-525-7372
    http://www.perque.org/Fibromyalgia.pdf
    A Novel Treatment for Fibromyalgia Imrpoves Clinical Outcomes in a
    Community-Based Study.
    Patricia A. Deuster, Russell M. Jaffe. RJaffe@perque.com
    Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain. 1998; Vol. 6(2): 133-149.

    Using blood tests, the researchers ran a panel of 350 antigens including
    environmental chemicals, food additives and preservatives, crustaceans,
    diary products, fish, fruits, grains, meats, mollusks, and oils.

    Normal, healthy people react to only two or less of this panel. The greatest
    offenders were:

    MSG 42.5 % (17 out of 40 patients)
    Candida albicans 37.5
    Caffeine 37
    Chocolate/cocoa 37
    Food colorings 37
    Cola beverages 37
    Cow Dairy Products 25
    Sulfite/metabisulfite 22.5
    Xylene 22.5
    Yogurt 22.5
    Aspartame 20
    BHA 20
    Cadmium 20
    Lead 20
    Tylenol 20
    Yeast 20
    Sodium benzoate 20
    Orange 20

    C. Trocho (1998):
    "In all, the rats retained, 6 hours after administration, about 5% of the
    label, half of it in the liver."

    They used a very low level of aspartame ingestion, 10 mg/kg, for rats, which
    have a much greater tolerance for aspartame than humans.
    So, the corresponding level for humans would be about 1 or 2 mg/kg.
    Many headache studies in humans used doses of about 30 mg/kg daily.

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/925
    aspartame puts formaldehyde adducts into tissues, Part 1/2
    full text, Trocho & Alemany 1998.06.26: Murray 2002.12.22 rmforall

    http://ww.presidiotex.com/barcelona/index.html full text
    Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue components in
    vivo. Life Sci June 26 1998; 63(5): 337-49.
    Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular,
    Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
    http://www.bq.ub.es/cindex.html L*nies de Recerca: Toxicitat de
    l'aspartame http://www.bq.ub.es/grupno/grup-no.html
    Sra. Carme Trocho, Sra. Rosario Pardo, Dra. Immaculada Rafecas,
    Sr. Jordi Virgili, Dr. Xavier Remesar, Dr. Jose Antonio
    Fernandez-Lopez, Dr. Mari* Alemany [male]
    Fac. Biologia Tel.: (93)4021521, FAX: (93)4021559
    Sra. Carme Trocho "Trok-ho" Fac. Biologia Tel.: (93)4021544,
    FAX: (93)4021559
    alemany@porthos.bio.ub.es ; bioq@sun.bq.ub.es

    Abstract:
    Adult male rats were given an oral dose of 10 mg/kg aspartame,
    14C-labeled in the methanol carbon.
    At timed intervals of up to 6 hours, the radioactivity in plasma and several
    organs was investigated.
    Most of the radioactivity found (&gt;98% in plasma, &gt;75% in liver) was bound to
    protein.
    Label present in liver, plasma and kidney was in the range of 1-2% of total
    radioactivity administered per g or mL, changing little with time.
    Other organs (brown and white adipose tissues, muscle, brain, cornea and
    retina) contained levels of label in the range of 1/12th to 1/10th of that
    of liver.
    In all, the rats retained, 6 hours after administration, about 5% of the
    label, half of it in the liver.

    The specific radioactivity of tissue protein, RNA and DNA was quite uniform.
    The protein label was concentrated in amino acids, different from
    methionine, and largely coincident with the result of protein exposure to
    labeled formaldehyde.
    DNA radioactivity was essentially in a single different adduct base,
    different from the normal bases present in DNA.
    The nature of the tissue label accumulated was, thus, a direct consequence
    of formaldehyde binding to tissue structures.

    The administration of labeled aspartame to a group of cirrhotic rats
    resulted in comparable label retention by tissue components, which suggests
    that liver function (or its defect) has little effect on formaldehyde
    formation from aspartame and binding to biological components.

    The chronic treatment of a series of rats with 200 mg/kg of non-labeled
    aspartame during 10 days results in the accumulation of even more label when
    given the radioactive bolus, suggesting that the amount of formaldehyde
    adducts coming from aspartame in tissue proteins and nucleic acids may be
    cumulative.

    It is concluded that aspartame consumption may constitute a hazard because
    of its contribution to the formation of formaldehyde adducts. PMID: 9714421

    [ Extracts ]
    "The high label presence in plasma and liver is in agreement with the
    carriage of the label from the intestine to the liver via the portal vein.
    The high label levels in kidney and, to a minor extent, in brown adipose
    tissue and brain are probably a consequence of their high blood flows (45).
    Even in white adipose tissue, the levels of radioactivity found 6 hours
    after oral administration were 1/25th those of liver.
    Cornea and retina, both tissues known to metabolize actively methanol
    (21,28) showed low levels of retained label.
    In any case, the binding of methanol-derived carbon to tissue proteins was
    widespread, affecting all systems, fully reaching even sensitive targets
    such as the brain and retina....

    The amount of label recovered in tissue components was quite high in all the
    groups, but especially in the NA rats.
    In them, the liver alone retained, for a long time, more than 2 % of the
    methanol carbon given in a single oral dose of aspartame, and the rest of
    the body stored an additional 2 % or more.
    These are indeed extremely high levels for adducts of formaldehyde, a
    substance responsible of chronic deleterious effects (33), that has also
    been considered carcinogenic (34,47).
    The repeated occurrence of claims that aspartame produces headache and other
    neurological and psychological secondary effects-- more often than not
    challenged by careful analysis-- (5, 9, 10, 15, 48) may eventually find at
    least a partial explanation in the permanence of the formaldehyde label,
    since formaldehyde intoxication can induce similar effects (49).

    The cumulative effects derived from the incorporation of label in the
    chronic administration model suggests that regular intake of aspartame may
    result in the progressive accumulation of formaldehyde adducts.
    It may be further speculated that the formation of adducts can help to
    explain the chronic effects aspartame consumption may induce on sensitive
    tissues such as brain (6, 9, 19, 50).
    In any case, the possible negative effects that the accumulation of
    formaldehyde adducts can induce is, obviously, long-term.
    The alteration of protein integrity and function may needs some time to
    induce substantial effects.
    The damage to nucleic acids, mainly to DNA, may eventually induce cell death

    and/or mutations.
    The results presented suggest that the conversion of aspartame methanol into
    formaldehyde adducts in significant amounts in vivo should to be taken into
    account because of the widespread utilization of this sweetener.
    Further epidemiological and long-term studies are needed to determine the
    extent of the hazard that aspartame consumption poses for humans."

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/864
    Butchko, Tephly, McMartin: Alemany: aspartame formaldehyde
    adducts in rats: Murray 2002.09.08 rmforall
    Prof. Alemany vigorously affirms the validity of the Trocho study
    against criticism:
    Butchko, HH et al [24 authors], Aspartame: review of safety.
    Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2002 April 1; 35 (2 Pt 2): S1-93, review
    available for $35, [an industry paid organ]. Butchko:
    "When all the research on aspartame, including evaluations in both the
    premarketing and postmarketing periods, is examined as a whole, it is
    clear that aspartame is safe, and there are no unresolved questions
    regarding its safety under conditions of intended use."
    [ They repeatedly pass on the ageless industry deceit that the methanol
    in fruits and vegetables is as as biochemically available as that in
    aspartame-- see the 1984 rebuttal by W.C. Monte. ]
    In the same report, Schiffman concludes on page S49, not citing any
    research after 1997, "Thus, the weight of the scientific evidence
    indicates that aspartame does not cause headache."
    Dr. Susan S. Schiffman, Dept. of Psychiatry, Duke University
    sss@acpub.duke.edu 919-684-3303, 660-5657

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/911
    RTP ties to industry criticized by CSPI: Murray: 2002.12.09 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/846
    aspartame in Merck Maxalt-MLT worsens migraine,
    AstraZeneca Zomig, Eli Lilly Zyprexa,
    J&J Merck Pepcid AC (Famotidine 10mg) Chewable Tab,
    Pfizer Cool Mint Listerine Pocketpaks: Murray 2002.07.16 rmforall

    Migraine MLT-Down: an unusual presentation of migraine
    in patients with aspartame-triggered headaches.
    Newman LC, Lipton RB Headache 2001 Oct; 41(9): 899-901.
    [ Merck 10-mg Maxalt-MLT, for migraine, has 3.75 mg aspartame,
    while 12 oz diet soda has 200 mg. ]
    Headache Institute, St. Lukes-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY
    Department of Neurology newmanache@aol.com
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
    Innovative Medical Research RLipton@aecom.yu.edu

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/855
    Blumenthall & Vance: aspartame chewing gum headaches Nov 1997:
    Murray 2002.07.28 rmforall

    Harvey J. Blumenthal, MD, Dwight A Vance, RPh
    Chewing Gum Headaches. Headache 1997 Nov-Dec; 37(10): 665-6.
    Department of Neurology, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine,
    Tulsa, USA. neurotulsa@aol.com
    Aspartame, a popular dietetic sweetener, may provoke headache in some
    susceptible individuals. Herein, we describe three cases of young women
    with migraine who reported their headaches could be provoked by chewing
    gum sweetened with aspartame. [ 6-8 mg aspartame per stick chewing gum ]

    Subject: Re: Murray: Butchko:

    Tephly: critique of Trocho report Apr 2002 8.29.2
    Date: Fri, 30 Aug 2002 09:49:56 +0200
    From: Mari* Alemany alemany@bio.ub.es
    To: Rich Murray rmforall@att.net
    References: 1

    Dear Rich,

    Thank you for the opportunity to say something about the "paper" by Tephly
    that followed our study on the incorporation of aspartame-derived methanol
    label into DNA and protein of rats.
    I don't know if responding to that publication is worth the effort.

    Surprisingly, a serious journal, such as Life Sciences published a rebuttal
    of our previous paper as a normal "research paper", but including no new
    information neither experimental work.
    This is only a sample of the "scientific" power of the advocates of
    aspartame.

    Anybody can extract conclusions from this anomaly, but it seems to me that
    there was nothing new in that pamphlet that may add information to what we
    already explained in our paper.
    The responses to the questions raised by Tephly are already in our paper,
    which means that either that it was not read or, worst, it was misread.

    The presence of aspartame-derived label in DNA and protein adducts is
    unquestionable and unquestioned, and agrees with previous studies.
    Then, what importance has the mechanism of incorporation?
    There were adducts, and they represent loss of function and mutation.
    That was our thesis.

    The reference to previous studies showing very low levels of formaldehyde in
    blood do not refute our data.
    First of all, measuring formaldehyde is tricky,
    and in any case, the circulating levels would be below the current limit of
    detection for most of the methods used.
    That is the current explanation for the low levels of methanol in plasma
    after aspartame loading: they are zero, using most of the methods available
    for methanol, since the expected levels are currently below the limit of
    detection...

    In addition, it is not logical to expect to find measurable levels of
    formaldehyde in a medium (blood) containing a huge amount of protein.
    Formaldehyde reacts immediately with proteins because it is highly reactive:
    that is the reason why we have found it in cell protein and DNA.
    It is absurd to expect it to forfeit binding with cell proteins and go all
    the way into the bloodstream!
    Remember that formaldehyde is used to preserve corpses precisely because it
    binds protein (including those of putrefactive bacteria) and prevents its
    degradation.

    The "alternative" point expressed by Tephly, suggesting that aspartame
    methanol-label goes all the way into formic acid and the C1 pathway was
    thoroughly refuted by us, using experimental data.
    There was no labelled methionine nor thymine in protein and DNA respectively
    in the rat protein we recovered from rats treated with aspartame.
    This means--unequivocally-- that the label present in DNA and protein
    adducts was NOT incorporated into amino acids or nucleic acid bases.

    The only explanation for our data was that the label was in the form of
    formaldehyde adducts.

    If this explanation does not satisfy other scientists, they are free to
    repeat the experiment and show where we went wrong, or to probe and prove
    experimentally their hypotheses. Otherwise, our results stand unchecked
    and, consequently, should be deemed true.

    I hope that this information will help any attentive reader understand why
    we have left for good this field of study.

    Best regards.
    ------------------------------
    Prof. Dr. Mari* Alemany
    Grup de Recerca Nitrogen-Obesitat
    Departament de Nutrició i Bromatologia
    Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona
    Av. Diagonal, 645; 08028 Barcelona Espanya/España/Spain
    tel. +34 93 403 4606; fax: +34 93 403 7064; E-mail: alemany@bio.ub.es

    Life Sci 1999; 65(13): PL157-60. [ letter, usually not peer reviewed ]
    Comments on the purported generation of formaldehyde and adduct
    formation from the sweetener aspartame.

    Tephly TR Thomas R. Tephly 319-335-7979 thomas-tephly@uiowa.edu
    ttephly@blue.weeg.uiowa.edu Department of Pharmacology
    The University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA.

    A recent paper by Trocho et al. (1) describes experiments meant to show that
    formaldehyde adducts are formed when rats are administered the sweetener
    aspartame.
    These authors assume that the methanol carbon of aspartame generates
    formaldehyde which then forms adducts with protein, DNA, and RNA.
    Doses employed range widely.
    In this letter, studies which have been published previously and which were
    not cited by these authors are reviewed in order to put into perspective the
    disposition of methanol and formaldehyde in monkeys and humans, species
    relevant to the toxicity of methanol and its toxic metabolite, formic acid.
    PMID: 10503962, UI: 99431287

    [ A number of pro-aspartame studies by Tephly and associates, invariably
    funded by the aspartame industry (Monsanto, NutraSweet) are criticized in
    detail at:

    http://www.HolisticMed.com/aspartame mgold@holisticmed.com
    Aspartame Toxicity Information Center Mark D. Gold
    12 East Side Drive #2-18 Concord, NH 03301 603-225-2100
    http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame.../methanol.html
    "Scientific Abuse in Aspartame Research"

    Gold points out that industry methanol assays were too insensitive to
    properly measure blood methanol levels. ]

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1016
    President Bush & formaldehyde (aspartame) toxicity: Ramazzini Foundation
    carcinogenicity results Dec 2002: Soffritti: Murray 2003.08.03 rmforall

    p. 88 "The sweetening agent aspartame hydrolyzes in the gastrointestinal
    tract to become free methyl alcohol, which is metabolized in the liver
    to formaldehyde, formic acid, and CO2. (11)"
    Medinsky MA & Dorman DC. 1994; Assessing risks of low-level
    methanol exposure. CIIT Act. 14: 1-7.

    Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 982: 87-105.
    Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of
    formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in rats.
    Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Lambertin L, Lauriola M, Padovani M, Maltoni C.
    Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for Oncology and
    Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. crcfr@tin.it

    Formaldehyde was administered for 104 weeks in drinking water supplied
    ad libitum at concentrations of 1500, 1000, 500, 100, 50, 10, or 0 mg/L
    to groups of 50 male and 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats beginning at
    seven weeks of age.
    Control animals (100 males and 100 females) received tap water only.
    Acetaldehyde was administered to 50 male and 50 female Sprague-Dawley
    rats beginning at six weeks of age at concentrations of 2,500, 1,500,
    500, 250, 50, or 0 mg/L.
    Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death.
    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to produce an increase in total
    malignant tumors in the treated groups and showed specific carcinogenic
    effects on various organs and tissues. PMID: 12562630

    Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 982: 46-69.

    Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of
    methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol in rats.
    Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Cevolani D, Guarino M, Padovani M, Maltoni C.
    Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for Oncology and
    Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. crcfr@tin.it

    Methyl alcohol was administered in drinking water supplied ad libitum at
    doses of 20,000, 5,000, 500, or 0 ppm to groups of male and female
    Sprague-Dawley rats 8 weeks old at the start of the experiment.
    Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death.
    Ethyl alcohol was administered by ingestion in drinking water at a
    concentration of 10% or 0% supplied ad libitum to groups of male and
    female Sprague-Dawley rats; breeders and offspring were included in the
    experiment.
    Treatment started at 39 weeks of age (breeders), 7 days before mating,
    or from embryo life (offspring) and lasted until their spontaneous death.
    Under tested experimental conditions, methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol
    were demonstrated to be carcinogenic for various organs and tissues.
    They must also be considered multipotential carcinogenic agents.
    In addition to causing other tumors, ethyl alcohol induced malignant
    tumors of the oral cavity, tongue, and lips.
    These sites have been shown to be target organs in man by epidemiologic
    studies. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 12562628

    Surely the authors deliberately emphasized that aspartame is well-known
    to be a source of formaldehyde, which is an extremely potent, cumulative
    toxin, with complex, multiple effects on all tissues and organs.

    This is even more significant, considering that they have already tested
    aspartame, but not yet released the results:

    p. 29-32 Table 1: The Ramazzinni Foundation Cancer Program
    Project of [200] Long-Term Carcinogenicity Bioassays: Agents Studied

    No. No. of Bioassays Species No. Route of Exposure
    108. "Coca-Cola" 4 Rat 1,999 Ingestion, Transplantal Route
    109. "Pepsi-Cola" 1 Rat 400 Ingestion
    110. Sucrose 1 Rat 400 Ingestion
    111. Caffeine 1 Rat 800 Ingestion
    112. Aspartame 1 Rat 1,800 Ingestion

    http://members.nyas.org/events/confe...f_02_0429.html
    Soffritti said that Coca-Cola showed no carcinogenicity.

    It may be time to disclose these important aspartame results.

    Finally, an intripid and much published team in Japan has found DNA damage
    in 8 tissues from single non-lethal doses of aspartame (near-significant
    high levels of DNA damage in 5 tissues) and many other additives in groups
    of just 4 mice:

    Mutat Res 2002 Aug 26; 519(1-2): 103-19
    The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food
    additives.
    Sasaki YF, Kawaguchi S, Kamaya A, Oh****a M, Kabasawa K, Iwama K,
    Taniguchi K, Tsuda S.
    Laboratory of Genotoxicity, Faculty of Chemical and Biological
    Engineering, Hachinohe National College of Technology,
    Tamonoki Uwanotai 16-1, Aomori 039-1192, Japan.
    yfsasaki-c@hachinohe-ct.ac.jp ; s.tsuda@iwate-u.ac.jp

    We determined the genotoxicity of 39 chemicals currently in use as food
    additives.
    They fell into six categories-dyes, color fixatives and
    preservatives, preservatives, antioxidants, fungicides, and sweeteners.

    We tested groups of four male ddY mice once orally with each additive at
    up to 0.5xLD(50) or the limit dose (2000 mg/kg) and performed the comet
    assay on the glandular stomach, colon, liver, kidney, urinary bladder, lung,
    brain, and bone marrow 3 and 24 h after treatment.

    Of all the additives, dyes were the most genotoxic.
    Amaranth, Allura Red, New Coccine, Tartrazine, Erythrosine, Phloxine, and
    Rose Bengal induced dose-related DNA damage in the glandular stomach, colon,
    and/or urinary bladder.
    All seven dyes induced DNA damage in the gastrointestinal organs at a low
    dose (10 or 100 mg/kg).

    Among them, Amaranth, Allura Red, New Coccine, and Tartrazine induced
    DNA damage in the colon at close to the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs).

    Two antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated
    hydroxytoluene (BHT)), three fungicides (biphenyl, sodium
    o-phenylphenol, and thiabendazole), and four sweeteners (sodium
    cyclamate, saccharin, sodium saccharin, and sucralose) also induced DNA
    damage in gastrointestinal organs.

    Based on these results, we believe that more extensive assessment of
    food additives in current use is warranted. PMID: 12160896

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/934
    24 recent formaldehyde toxicity [Comet assay] reports:
    Murray 2002.12.31 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/935
    Comet assay finds DNA damage from sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin in
    mice: Sasaki YF & Tsuda S Aug 2002: Murray 2003.01.01 rmforall
    [ Also borderline evidence, in this pilot study of 39 food additives,
    using test groups of 4 mice, for DNA damage from for stomach, colon,
    liver, bladder, and lung 3 hr after oral dose of 2000 mg/kg aspartame--
    a very high dose. Methanol is the only component of aspartame that can lead
    to DNA damage. ]

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/961
    genotoxins, Comet assay in mice: Ace-K, stevia fine; aspartame poor;
    sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin bad: Y.F. Sasaki Aug 2002:
    Murray 2003.01.27 rmforall [A detailed look at the data] ]

    J Toxicol Sci. 2002 Dec; 27 Suppl 1: 1-8.
    [Genotoxicity studies of stevia extract and steviol by the comet assay]
    [Article in Japanese]
    Sekihashi K, Saitoh H, Sasaki Y. yfsasaki-c@hachinohe-ct.ac.jp
    Safety Research Institute for Chemical Compounds Co., Ltd., 363-24 Shin-ei,
    Kiyota-ku, Sapporo 004-0839, Japan.

    The genotoxicity of steviol, a metabolite of stevia extract, was evaluated
    for its genotoxic potential using the comet assay.
    In an in vitro study, steviol at 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 micrograms/ml did
    not damage the nuclear DNA of TK6 and WTK1 cells in the presence and absence
    of S9 mix.
    In vivo studies of steviol were conducted by two independent organizations.
    Mice were sacrificed 3 and 24 hr after one oral administration of steviol at
    250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg.
    DNA damage in multiple mouse organs was measured by the comet assay as
    modified by us.
    After oral treatment, stomach, colon, liver, kidney and testis DNA were not
    damaged.
    The in vivo genotoxicity of stevia extract was also evaluated for its
    genotoxic potential using the comet assay.
    Mice were sacrificed 3 and 24 hr after oral administration of stevia extract
    at 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg.
    Stomach, colon and liver DNA were not damaged.
    As all studies showed negative responses, stevia extract and steviol are
    concluded to not have DNA-damaging activity in cultured cells and mouse
    organs. PMID: 12533916
    Send blank post to: <br />aspartameNM-subscribe@onelist.com to join<br />free,open, list with searchable archives for toxicity issues.<br />Richard \"Rich\" T. Murray Room For All 1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, NM 87505<br />rmforall@comcast.net 505-501-2298

  6. #6
    Join Date
    Jun 1999
    Location
    Santa Fe, NM 87505, USA
    Posts
    63

    Post

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1018
    aspartame toxicity coverup increases danger of corporate meltdown:
    Michael C. Carakostas of Coca-Cola: Murray 2003.08.11 rmforall
    http://www.isrtp.org/new_members/members1.htm
    The International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
    Carakostas, Michael C., DVM, PhD Director/Scientific & Regulatory
    Affairs The Coca-Cola Company PO Drawer 1734 Atlanta, GA 30301
    T. 404/676-4234 F. 404/676-7166 E-mail: mcarakostas@na.ko.com
    http://www2.coca-cola.com/ourcompany...aspartame.html [photo]
    Aspartame: The world agrees it's safe By Michael Carakostas, DVM, PhD
    Director, Scientific and Regulatory Affairs, Coca-Cola

    It is commendable that Carakostas mentions the core problem, albeit
    disparagingly, and overlaid with multiple untruths: "During digestion,
    aspartame yields a very small amount of methanol-- as do many other food
    substances. The body converts this methanol to formaldehyde, which is
    instantly converted to formate. Formate is quickly eliminated as carbon
    dioxide and water."

    Carakostas deceptively make claims, unsupported by research, that the amount
    of methanol from aspartame is "very small", that many foods release as much,
    and that little of the inevitable formaldehyde or formic acid toxic products
    accumulate in body tissues. This executive, with a PhD in veterinary
    science, is deceiving people about very serious multiple toxicities.

    Thus, there is evidence here cited from 1973 to 2004 that research and
    reviews by immense vested interests about aspartame must be scrutinized with
    the greatest skepticism. The greatest Internet myth about aspartame is
    this: "Aspartame is the most thoroughly tested food additive in history."

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/857
    www.dorway.com: original documents and long reviews of flaws in
    aspartame toxicity research: Murray 2002.07.31 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/858
    Samuels: Strong: Roberts: Gold: flaws in double-blind studies re
    aspartame and MSG toxicity: Murray 2002.08.01 rmforall

    "Survey of aspartame studies: correlation of outcome and funding
    sources," 1998, unpublished: http://www.dorway.com/peerrev.html
    Walton found 166 separate published studies in the peer reviewed
    medical literature, which had relevance for questions of human safety.
    The 74 studies funded by industry all (100%) attested to aspartame's
    safety, whereas of the 92 non-industry funded studies, 84 (91%)
    identified a problem. Six of the seven non-industry funded studies
    that were favorable to aspartame safety were from the FDA, which
    has a public record that shows a strong pro-industry bias.
    Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern Ohio
    Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown,
    OH 44501, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
    Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240 Youngstown,
    OH 44501 330-740-3621 rwalton193@aol.com
    http://www.neoucom.edu/DEPTS/Psychiatry/walton.htm

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/622
    Gold: Koehler: Walton: Van Den Eeden: Leon:
    aspartame toxicity: Murray 2001.06.04 rmforall four double-blind studies

    Headache 1988 Feb; 28(1): 10-4
    The effect of aspartame on migraine headache.
    Koehler SM, Glaros A PMID: 3277925, UI: 88138777
    Shirley M. Koehler, Ph.D. Department of Psychology
    Brooks Rehabilitation Hospital
    3599 University Boulevard, South Jacksonville, Florida 32216
    (904) 858-7650 shirley.koehler@brookshealth.org
    Alan Glaros glarosa@umkc.edu 816-235-2074

    They conducted a double-blind study of patients, ages 18-55, who had
    a medical diagnosis of classical migraines (normally having 1-3
    migraines in 4-weeks), who were not on medications (other than
    analgesics), and who suspected that aspartame had a negative effect on
    their migraine headaches. The subjects were given 1200 mg daily,
    aspartame or placebo, for four weeks, about 17 mg/kg. The placebo
    group had no increase in headaches. Approximately half of the subjects
    (5 of 11) who took aspartame had a large, statistically significant
    (p = 0.02), increase in migraine headache frequency, but not in
    intensity or duration, compared to baseline or placebo. Only 11 of
    25 subjects completed the program: 8 dropped out, 4 began new
    medications, 2 had incomplete records. They were at home.
    Since 1/3 of the subjects dropped out, they may have been choosing
    to avoid headaches-- were they unpaid? To achieve statistical
    signifance with only 11 subjects hints that the incidence rate from
    aspartame is very high, about 1/2, for migraine cases who believe
    that they are hurt by aspartame.

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1077
    eight depressed people react strongly to aspartame, Prof. Ralph G. Walton,
    MD, 1993 double-blind study, full text: Murray 2004.04.26 rmforall

    Walton, RG, "Adverse reactions to aspartame: double-blind challenge in
    patients from a vulnerable population," 1993, with Robert Hudak and
    Ruth J. Green-Waite, Biological Psychiatry, 34 (1), 13-17.
    Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern Ohio
    Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown,
    OH 44501, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
    Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240 Youngstown,
    OH 44501 330-740-3621 rwalton193@aol.com
    http://www.neoucom.edu/DEPTS/Psychiatry/walton.htm

    Eight depressed patients, ages 24-60, and five non-depressed controls,
    ages 24-56, employed at the hospital, were given for 7 days either
    aspartame or a placebo, and then after a 3 day break, given the
    opposite. Each got 2100 mg aspartame daily, 30 mg/kg bodyweight,
    equal to 10-12 cans of diet soda daily, about a gallon. Despite the
    very small number of subjects, the results were dramatic and
    statistically significant. The eight depressed patients reported with
    aspartame, compared to placebo, much higher levels of nervousness,
    trouble remembering, nausea, depression, temper, and malaise. (For each
    symptom, p&lt;0.01) The five normals did not report strong enough
    differences between aspartame and placebo to be significant.
    Initially, the study was to be on a group of 40, but was halted by the
    Institutional Review Board because of severe reactions among 3 of the
    depressed patients.

    Again, statistical significance with only 8 depressed patients:
    "In this study, patients most often began to report significant
    symptoms after day 2 or 3." The incidence rate is very high,
    indeed, about 1/3. The most common symptoms are entirely typical
    of thousands of case histories.

    Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, T.D. Koepsell, W.T. Longstreth, Jr,
    G. van Belle, J.R. Daling, B. McKnight, "Aspartame ingestion and
    headaches: a randomized crossover trial," 1994, Neurology, 44, 1787-93
    Steven K. Van Den Eeden,PhD 550-450-2202 skv@dor.kaiser.org
    Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program
    3505 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94611-5714
    http://www.dor.kaiser.org/dorhtml/in...Den_Eeden.html

    In their introduction, they comment:

    "In addition, the FDA had received over 5,000 complaints as of July,
    1991 in a passive surveillance system to monitor adverse side effects.
    (17) Neurologic problems constitute the primary complaints in these
    and several other case series, with headaches accounting for
    18 to 45 %,depending on the case series reported. (17-19)"

    Subjects, ages 18-57, were recruited who believed they got headaches
    from aspartame, but were otherwise mentally and physically healthy.
    They were paid $ 15 total, and were at home. Of the 44 subjects, 32
    contributed data to the 38-day trials: a week of inert placebo, a week
    of either aspartame or placebo, followed by a week of the opposite, and
    then this two-week cycle repeated. The daily dose was about 30 mg/kg.
    "The proportion of days subjects reported having a headache was
    higher during aspartame treatment compared with placebo treatment
    (aspartame = 0.33, placebo = 0.24; p = 0.04) (table 5)".
    Of the 12 subjects not included in the data, 7 reported adverse
    symptoms before withdrawing.

    Again, statistical significance with a moderate number of healthy
    subjects, willing to be recruited by a newspaper ad, who believed
    aspartame hurt them. The number of headaches for each subject
    for each treatment week are given: it appears that 4 subjects
    had the strongest increase in headaches from the run-in week
    or placebo week to their first week on aspartame, jumping from 0 to 5,
    1 to 6, 1 to 4, 0 to 5 headaches per week. So, about 4 of the 44
    healthy people recruited for the study, who believed aspartame hurt
    them, had a stong increase in headaches from the first week of daily
    asparame exposure, while 7 reported adverse symptoms before leaving,
    a total of 11 out of 44, an incidence ratio of 1/4.

    This is sky high, if we consider that, if the incidence ratio for the
    about two hundred million users in the USA is 1 of 100, that is 2
    million cases. It is plausible that the incidence ratio lies between 1
    and 10 out of 100 for continuous daily exposure. These three flames
    should have set off alarm bells, with extensive follow-up studies and
    much more careful study of thousands of case histories. But these
    little flares were adroitly smothered by thick blankets of industry
    funded fluff:

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/623
    Simmons: Gold: Schiffman: Spiers:
    aspartame toxicity: Murray 2001.06.04 rmforall two double-blind studies

    http://www.dorway.com/tldaddic.html 5-page review
    Roberts HJ Aspartame (NutraSweet) addiction.
    Townsend Letter 2000 Jan; HJRobertsMD@aol.com
    http://www.sunsentpress.com/ sunsentpress@aol.com
    Sunshine Sentinel Press P.O.Box 17799 West Palm Beach, FL 33416
    800-814-9800 561-588-7628 561-547-8008 fax

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/669
    1038-page medical text "Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic"
    published May 30 2001 $ 60.00 postpaid data from 1200 cases
    available at http://www.amazon.com
    over 600 references from standard medical research

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/790
    Moseley: review Roberts "Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic":
    Murray 2002.02.07 rmforall

    Roberts, Hyman J., 1924- ,
    Useful insights for diagnosis, treatment and public heath: an updated
    anthology of original research, 2002, 798 pages,
    aspartame disease, pages 627-685, 778-780

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/859
    Roberts: the life work of a brilliant clinician: aspartame toxicity:
    Murray 2002.08.02 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1070
    critique of aspartame review, French Food Safety Agency AFSSA 2002.05.07
    aspartamgb.pdf (18 pages, in English), Martin Hirsch:
    Murray 2004.04.13

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/957
    safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF:
    Murray 2003.01.12 rmforall EU Scientific Committee on Food, a whitewash

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1045
    http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame...2-response.htm
    Mark Gold exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific
    Committee on Food re aspartame ( 2002.12.04 ): 59 pages, 230 references

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/989 On 2003.04.10
    the European Union Parliament voted 440 to 20 to approve sucralose,
    limit cyclamates & reevaluate aspartame & stevia: Murray 2003.04.12 rmforall
    There is an astonishing amount of positive research about stevia, banned in
    the EU, and not allowed to be claimed as a sweetener in the USA:

    http://www.eatright.org/
    J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Feb; 104(2): 255-75.
    Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and
    nonnutritive sweeteners. American Dietetic Association.

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1068
    critique of aspartame review by American Dietetic Association Feb 2004,
    Valerie B. Duffy & Madeleine J. Sigman-Grant: Murray 2004.05.14 rmforall
    Send blank post to: <br />aspartameNM-subscribe@onelist.com to join<br />free,open, list with searchable archives for toxicity issues.<br />Richard \"Rich\" T. Murray Room For All 1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, NM 87505<br />rmforall@comcast.net 505-501-2298

  7. #7
    Join Date
    Jun 1999
    Location
    Santa Fe, NM 87505, USA
    Posts
    63

    Post

    http://www.dorway.com ( David O. Rietz, died 2003 ) over 12,000 print
    pages Mission-Possible-USA Betty Martini 770-242-2599
    Bettym19@mindspring.com http://www.dorway.com/asprlink.html many links
    http://www.dorway.com/nslawsuit.txt Jeff Martin, Attorney
    http://www.dorway.com/doctors.txt
    What many informed doctors are saying/have said about aspartame

    Mary Nash Stoddard
    Toxicology Sourcebook: "Deadly Deception Story of Aspartame"
    Aspartame Consumer Safety Network and Pilot Hotline [since 1987]
    PO Box 780634 Dallas TX 75378-0634
    phone: 214.387.4001 marystod@airmail.net http://www.aspartamesafety.com

    http://www.sweetpoison.com/
    http://www.sweetpoison.com/food-additives-to-avoid.html
    Dr. Janet Starr Hull, PhD, CN jshull@sweetpoison.com

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/805
    Ive: UK Daily Mirror Magazine: aspartame toxicity:
    Murray 2002.02.18 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1016
    President Bush & formaldehyde (aspartame) toxicity: Ramazzini Foundation
    carcinogenicity results Dec 2002: Soffritti: Murray 2003.08.03 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/874
    re "dry drunk": Bisbort: danger to President Bush from aspartame toxicity:
    Murray: 2002.02.24 2002.09.29 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1065
    politicians and celebrities hooked on diet sodas (aspartame):
    Murray 2004.03.24 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1101
    John Edwards gives up Diet Coke: The Cult of Diet Coke, Eric Gillin:
    Murray 2004.07.12 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1102
    John Edwards still drinks Diet Coke (aspartame): TIME Europe July 19 issue:
    Murray 2004.07.12 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/876
    hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) in George and Barbara Bush, 1991--
    aspartame toxicity? Roberts 1997: Murray 2002.10.09 rmforall

    http://www.dorway.com/upipart1.txt
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/262
    aspartame expose 96K Oct 1987 Part 1/3: Gregory Gordon, UPI reporter:
    Murray 2000.07.10 rmforall

    http://www.dorway.com/enclosur.html
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/53
    aspartame history Part 1/4 1964-1976: Gold: Murray 1999.11.06 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/928
    revolving door, Monsanto, FDA, EPA: NGIN: Murray 2002.12.23 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/841
    RTM: Merisant Co., MSD Capital, Dell Computer Corp., NutraSweet Co.,
    JW Childs Assc.: aspartame-neotame toxicity 2002.07.10 rmforall

    http://google.com gives 247,000 websites for "aspartame" , with the top
    8 of 10 listings being anti-aspartame, while
    http://groups.google.com finds on 700 MB of posts from 20 years of
    Usenet groups, 92,300 posts, the top 10 being anti-aspartame.
    http://news.google.com 33 recent aspartame items from 4500 sources.
    http://www.AllTheWeb.com gives 43,913, the top 8 of 10 anti.
    http://teoma.com/index.asp gives 78,200 websites, top 8 of 10 anti.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed lists 767 aspartame items.

    Many scientific studies and case histories report: * headaches * many body
    and joint pains (or burning, tingling, tremors, twitching, spasms, cramps,
    stiffness, numbness, difficulty swallowing) * fever, fatigue, swollen
    glands * "mind fog", "feel unreal", poor memory, confusion, anxiety,
    irritability, depression, mania, insomnia, dizziness, slurred speech, sexual
    problems, poor vision, hearing (deafness, tinnitus), or taste * red face,
    itching, rashes, allergic dermatitis, hair loss, burning eyes or throat, dry
    eyes or mouth, mouth sores, burning tongue * obesity, bloating, edema,
    anorexia, poor appetite or excessive hunger or thirst * breathing
    problems, shortness of breath * nausea, diarrhea or constipation * coldness
    * sweating * racing heart, low or high blood pressure, erratic blood sugar
    levels * hypothryroidism or hyperthyroidism * seizures * birth defects
    * brain cancers * addiction * aggrivates diabetes, autism, allergies,
    lupus, ADHD, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple chemical
    sensitivity, multiple sclerosis, pseudotumor cerebri and interstitial
    cystitis (bladder pain).
    ************************************************** *********
    Send blank post to: <br />aspartameNM-subscribe@onelist.com to join<br />free,open, list with searchable archives for toxicity issues.<br />Richard \"Rich\" T. Murray Room For All 1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, NM 87505<br />rmforall@comcast.net 505-501-2298

  8. #8
    Join Date
    Jun 1999
    Location
    Santa Fe, NM 87505, USA
    Posts
    63

    Post

    http://www.dorway.com/barua.html
    Dr. J. Barua (ophthalmic surgeon), Dr. Arun Bal (surgeon)
    Emerging facts about aspartame.
    Journal Of The Diabetic Association Of India 1995; 35 (4):
    (79 references) barua@giasbm01.vsnl.net.in
    "...the total amount of methanol absorbed will be approximately 10% of
    aspartame ingested. An EPA assessment of methanol states that methanol, 'is
    considered a cumulative poison due to the low rate of excretion once it is
    absorbed. The absorbed methanol is then slowly converted to
    formaldehyde...'"
    "Reaction of formaldehyde with DNA has been observed, by spectrophotometry
    and electron microscopy, to result in irreversible denaturation."
    "DKP [from aspartame] has been implicated in the occurence of brain
    tumors."
    ************************************************** ************

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/939
    aspartame (aspartic acid, phenylalanine) binding to DNA:
    Karikas July 1998: Murray 2003.01.05 rmforall
    Karikas GA, Schulpis KH, Reclos GJ, Kokotos G
    Measurement of molecular interaction of aspartame and
    its metabolites with DNA. Clin Biochem 1998 Jul; 31(5): 405-7.
    Dept. of Chemistry, University of Athens, Greece
    http://www.chem.uoa.gr gkokotos@atlas.uoa.gr
    K.H. Schulpis inchildh@otenet.gr ; G.J. Reclos reklos@otenet.gr

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/960
    aspartame & MSG: possible role in autoimmune hepatitis:
    Prandota Jan 2003: Murray 2003.01.15 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/938
    aspartame harms mice brain cells: Hetle & Eltervaag: 2001 thesis
    abstract: Sonnewald 1995 study, full text: Murray 2003.01.05 rmforall

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/346
    WebMD: Barclay: Barth:
    survey shows aspartame hurts memory in students 2000.11.09
    Timothy M. Barth Department of Psychology t.barth@tcu.edu
    Texas Christian University TCU Box 298920 Fort Worth, TX 76129
    Chairman, Physiological Psychology 817-921-7410

    Konen, J.A., T.L. Sia, M. Czuchry, P.M. Stuntz, G.S. Bahr, T.M. Barth.,
    D.F. Dansereau, 2000. "Perceived Memory Impairment in Aspartame
    Users, "Presented at the Society for Neuroscience 30th Annual Meeting,
    November 6, 2000.

    Orange, C., 1998. "Effects of Aspartame on College Student Memory and
    Learning," College Student Journal; 32(1): 87-92. [ Carolyn Orange ]

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/760
    Kovatsi L, Tsouggas M
    The effect of oral aspartame administration on the
    balance of magnesium in the rat.
    Magnes Res 2001 Sep;14(3): 189-94.
    Laboratory of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece kovatsi@med.auth.gr

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/943
    aspartame, cell phones, brain cancer July 1999 Hardell:
    Murray 2003.01.09 rmforall
    http://www.medscape.com/MedGenMed/braintumors
    Lennart Hardell, M.D., PhD, in 1999 reported in Sweden that both
    cell phone use and heavy aspartame use correlate with increased
    brain cancers lennart.hardell@orebroll.se +46 19 602 15 46

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/31
    Wurtman: aspartame & seizures 1985.11.09: Murray 1999.10.30
    Wurtman RJ Aspartame: possible effect on seizure susceptibility.
    Lancet 1985 Nov 9; 2(8463): 1060.
    Richard J. Wurtman, Ph.D. dick@mit.edu 617-253-3091
    Professor of Neuroscience
    Prof. of Health Sciences and Technology
    Massachusetts Institute of Technlogy Cambridge, Mass. 02139

    http://www.truthinlabeling.org/ Truth in Labeling Campaign [MSG]
    Adrienne Samuels, PhD The toxicity/safety of processed
    free glutamic acid (MSG): a study in suppression of information.
    Accountability in Research 1999; 6: 259-310. 52-page review
    P.O. Box 2532 Darien, Illinois 60561
    858-481-9333 adandjack@aol.com

    Russell L. Blaylock, MD 601-982-1175 Madison, Mississippi
    "Excitotoxins: The Taste that Kills", 1977, 298 p., 493 references.
    "Health and Nutrition Secrets that can save your life", 2002, 459 p.,
    558 + 30 references, $ 30 http://www.russellblaylockmd.com/

    George R. Schwartz, MD "In Bad Taste: The MSG Syndrome", 1988
    http://www.healthpress.com/ goodbooks@healthpress.com
    PO Box 37470 Albuquerque, NM 87176 505-888-1394
    Kathleen Frazier, Publisher
    ************************************************** ************

    http://www.readthelabel.org.uk/ Additives Survivors' Network (UK)
    Geoff Brewer geoffbrewer@eurobell.co.uk
    http://www.chem.ox.ac.uk/mom/aspartame/aspartame.html
    http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webproject...ers/sarah.html
    Sarah Rogers sr8442@bristol.ac.uk
    http://www.react.ie/Health/Nutrition/Aspartame.htm Ireland
    http://members.tripod.com/~mission_p...nd_branch.html
    http://www.aspartame.ca/indexa.html John T. Linnell admin@aspartame.ca
    http://www.cybernaute.com/earthconce...taMalcache.htm
    http://www.fedupwithfoodadditives.info/ Australia FAILSAFE diet
    http://www.bradymax.com/nzaa/ New Zealand
    http://www.reseauproteus.net/therapi.../aspartame.htm France
    http://ww2.grn.es/avalls/aspa1.htm Spain
    http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/Falls/8669/ Brazil
    http://www.phd.com.br/aspartame.htm
    http://hem.passagen.se/mission.possible.sweden/
    http://home.online.no/~dusan/foods/aspartame.html Norway
    http://www.ostara.org/aspartam/#menue Germany
    http://www.aspartaam.nl/info/product.html Holland, in Dutch
    http://www.laleva.org/ archimede@laleva.cc Italy 9 languages
    http://www.laleva.cc/alimenti/alimenti.html aspartame vs stevia 4.17.03
    http://users.westnet.gr/~cgian/aspartame.htm Greece
    http://www.cseindia.org/html/cola-indepth/index.htm India
    ************************************************** ************

    http://www.vegsource.com extensive vegan information

    htttp://www.drmcdougall.com practical, delicious healthy diet guidance

    http://www.vegsource.com/articles/kradjian_milk.htm
    Robert Kradjian MD Discusses Milk

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/971
    Joel Fuhrman critique of Atkins diet in "Eat To Live":
    Murray 2003.03.01 rmforall

    http://www.hyp.ac.uk/cash/index.htm
    Consensus Action on Salt and Health

    Substitute stevia (at health food stores).
    Avoid all products with aspartame and MSG.
    Gradually reduce alcohol, sugar, caffeine (coffee, cocoa, and teas), meat,
    fish, eggs, milk, butter, and cheese, hydrogenated oils, trans fats,
    food additives and colors, fluoride, city water, salt and sodium.
    Enjoy organic rice, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, beans, nuts, almond
    butter, garlic, tumeric, with modest use of soy products and sprouted grain
    breads, flax seed and olive oils, vitamins and minerals, 4-8 1,000 mg fish
    oil capsules, and fill your jugs with deionized water.
    ************************************************** ************
    Send blank post to: <br />aspartameNM-subscribe@onelist.com to join<br />free,open, list with searchable archives for toxicity issues.<br />Richard \"Rich\" T. Murray Room For All 1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, NM 87505<br />rmforall@comcast.net 505-501-2298

  9. #9
    Join Date
    Jun 1999
    Location
    Santa Fe, NM 87505, USA
    Posts
    63

    Post

    ************************************************** *********

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1114
    review of sweeteners 2004, Weihrauch MR, Diehl V: formaldehyde from 11%
    methanol component of aspartame, methanol in dark wines and liquors,
    fermentation of fruits in colon, also smoke, new buildings, furniture,
    drapes, carpets, personal products: available database from Harvard Nurses'
    Health Study II of 91,249 women in 1991-1999: Murray 2004.09.18 rmforall

    Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@comcast.net
    1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 USA 505-501-2298

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/messages
    131 members, 1,115 posts in a public searchable archive

    2004.09.17 This review by an unqualified, earnest medical layman, aims at
    providing simple information from recent mainstream research on the toxicity
    of formaldehyde. Here are a few summary remarks, backed up by the body of
    this post.

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1094
    the 11% methanol component of aspartame becomes formaldehyde, now ruled a
    carcinogen by WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer: Murray
    2004.06.16 rmforall

    Methanol toxicity results from the inevitable conversion within hours of
    much of it into formaldehyde and then formic acid, both potent, cumulative
    toxins that affect every tissue, and that in long-term chronic exposure are
    a major cause of hypersensitivity to formaldehyde and other chemicals.

    About the same amount of methanol exists as an impurity, about one part in
    ten thousand, in dark wines and liquors, stated by experts to be the major
    cause of the infamous "morning after" hangover: "thirst, headache, fatigue,
    nausea, sweating, tremor, remorse, and anxiety that hangover sufferers
    report...." Also, dizziness is common, along with vision and eye problems,
    irritability, impaired memory, "brain fog", aching joints and body pains,
    flushed skin.

    Jones AW (1987) found next-morning hangover from red wine with
    100 to 150 mg methanol
    (9.5% w/v ethanol; 100 mg/l methanol = 0.01%, one part in ten thousand).

    Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol -- 1,120 mg aspartame in 2 L diet soda,
    almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol) -- the same
    amount that produces hangover from red wine.

    "Between a quarter and a half of drinkers claim not to experience hangover
    symptoms despite having been intoxicated. (three citations)" This
    indicates a remarkable range of individual vulnerability to formaldehyde and
    formic acid exposure.

    Other strong formaldehyde sources are tobacco and wood smoke, and the
    particleboard and new furniture, carpet, and drapes especially concentrated
    in mobile homes. Many personal care products contain formaldehyde; for
    instance, leather shoes can cause foot dermatitis.

    Similar levels of methanol, and its inevitable products in the human body,
    formaldehyde and formic acid, can also ensue from fermentation of fruit
    pectins in the colon.

    The wide range of individual variability and the multitude of long-term,
    low-level sources renders statistical studies difficult. It is commonsense
    to consider seriously the multitudes of case reports of long-term heavy
    users who become aspartame reactors, and to focus research on the actual
    complex toxic biochemistry for long-term heavy exposure in vulnerable
    people.

    An available huge database exists in the Harvard Nurses' Health Study II.
    The diabetes analysis included 91,249 women free of diabetes and other major
    chronic diseases at baseline in 1991.
    The weight change analysis included 51,603 women for whom complete dietary
    information and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999.

    There were three questions on diet soft drinks
    ("low-calorie cola with caffeine,"
    "low-calorie caffeine-free cola,"
    and "other low-calorie beverages").

    We summed the intake of single items to create a total of sugar-sweetened
    soft drink, diet soft drink, and fruit juice consumption.

    The 9 possible responses, ranging from "never" to "6 or more times per day,"
    were aggregated into 4 categories
    (&lt;1 drink per month, 1-4 drinks per month, 2-6 drinks per week, and 1 drink
    per day).

    Similar questionnaires were used to collect dietary information in 1995 and
    1999.

    The data for "6 or more times per day", rather than being averaged out with
    lower levels of use, should be studied for correlations with heavy alcohol
    use, high use of fruit, tobacco and wood smoke, mobile homes, other
    formaldehyde sources, MSG, carbon monoxide, VOCs, pesticides, heavy metals,
    and the many typical symptoms for hangovers and aspartame reactors:
    headaches, mental illnesses, seizures, dementia, accidents, crimes, suicide,
    infertility, miscarriages, birth defects, autism, asthma, sudden infant
    death syndrome, diabetes, cerebral palsy, allergies, Multiple Chemical
    Sensitivity, Multiple Sclerosis, Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,
    Attention Deficit Disorder, arthritis, dermatitis, thyroid diseases, liver
    diseases, obesity, heart diseases, stroke, cancers, vision problems,
    addictions, as well as any protective effects of folic acid, which
    facilitates the elimination of formaldehyde.

    This database might well be fully available and immediately searchable to
    test these associations.

    The automated Comet assay, fast, sensitive, and inexpensive, is a standard
    for assessment of DNA damage in any stored blood and tissue samples:

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/935
    Comet assay finds DNA damage from sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin in
    mice: Sasaki YF & Tsuda S Aug 2002: Murray 2003.01.01 rmforall
    [ Also borderline evidence, in this pilot study of 39 food additives,
    using test groups of 4 mice, for DNA damage from for stomach, colon,
    liver, bladder, and lung 3 hr after oral dose of 2000 mg/kg aspartame--
    a very high dose. Methanol is the only component of aspartame that can lead
    to DNA damage. ]
    ************************************************** ************
    Send blank post to: <br />aspartameNM-subscribe@onelist.com to join<br />free,open, list with searchable archives for toxicity issues.<br />Richard \"Rich\" T. Murray Room For All 1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, NM 87505<br />rmforall@comcast.net 505-501-2298

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